Changes in bread making quality of wheat during postharvest maturations
More details
Hide details
Department of Grain Processing and Bakery, Prof. Wacław Dąbrowski Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, State Research Institute, Rakowiecka 36, 02-532 Warsaw, Poland
Final revision date: 2021-06-09
Acceptance date: 2021-06-11
Publication date: 2021-07-09
Corresponding author
Anna Szafrańska   

Department of Grain Processing and Bakery, Prof. Wacław Dąbrowski Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology – State Research Institute, Rakowiecka 36, 02-532, Warsaw, Poland
Int. Agrophys. 2021, 35(2): 179-185
  • Post harvest maturation influence the quality of grain, flour, dough and bread.
  • Changes of the baking value of wheat during post-harvest maturation were depended on cultivar and harvest year.
  • The results are an introduction to the discussion between breeders, farmers, processors of grain and researchers regarding the influence of the post harvest maturation on the bread making quality of wheat.
The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in bread making quality for three wheat cultivars during their postharvest grain maturation phase. Grain samples were collected immediately after harvest in two consecutive years. Over the next 12 weeks the changes of the technological value of grains were determined. The wheat cultivars were characterized by varying quality in terms of the properties of gluten proteins. Changes to the baking value of grains which occur during their postharvest maturation phase were dependent on the cultivar and harvest year: the amount of wet gluten present decreased slightly in all tested cultivars, whereas the quality of the gluten improved. The greatest changes in the gluten index occurred for cv. Bamberka in both harvest years as a result of its low initial value – below 80%. The greatest improvement in alveograph properties was found for wheat cultivars with a lower baking value which was determined just after harvest. A slight increase in the water absorption of the flour was observed, as well as slight increases in bread yield and bread crumb hardness. Grain processors should expect an improvement in the baking value “W” and dough tenacity “P” of grain after its post-maturation phase in comparison with the quality values determined just after harvest.
Bonfil D.J. and Posner E.S., 2012. Can bread wheat quality be determined by gluten index? J. Cereal Sci., 56, 115-118.
Bordes J., Brandlard G., Oury F.X., Charmet G., and Balfourier F., 2008. Agronomic characteristics, grain quality and flour rheology of 372 bread wheats in a worldwide core collection. J. Cereal Sci., 48: 569-579.
Caffe-Treml M., Glover K.D., Krishnan P.G., and Hareland G., 2010. Variability and relationships among Mixolab, mixograph, and baking parameters based on multi- environment Spring Wheat Trials. Cereal Chem., 87, 574-580.
Codina G.G. and Paslaru V., 2008. Effect of gluten vital on the alveograph characteristics and bread quality of flour wheat dough with a weaker potential for bread making. Revista Lucrări ştiinţifice. Seria Agronomie, 51, 106-111.
Dapčević Hadnađev T., Pojić M., Hadnađev M., and Torbica A., 2011. The role of empirical rheology in flour quality control, wide spectra of quality control. (Ed. I. Akyar), Intech Open. Available at,
Dhaka V., Gulia N., and Khatkar B.S., 2012. Application of Mixolab to assess the bread making quality of wheat. Open Access Scientific Reports, 1, 183.
Dirndorfer M., 2012. Flour quality: flour aging – the effects on flour quality and baking performance. Buhler AG. Available at
Elmann T., 2011. Effect of intensity of agricultural techniques and grain storage on technological quality of winter wheat’. Part II. Quality traits of flour and bread. Acta Scientarum Polonorum, Agricultura, 10, 37-46.
Fowler M., 2014. Adapting for change. New wheat crop brings different challenges, opportunities for flour millers. September 2014. Available at (accessed Oct 8, 2020).
Freund W. and Kim M.-Y., 2006. Determining the baking quality of wheat and rye flour. In: Popper L. et al. (eds). Future of flour. Agrimedia GmbH, Germany, 114-115.
Geisslitz S., Longin C.F.H., Scherf K.A., and Koehler P., 2019. Comparative study on gluten protein composition of ancient (Einkorn, Emmer and Spelt) and modern wheat species (Durum and Common wheat). Foods, 8, 409.
Janić Hajnal E., Tomić J., Torbica A., Rakita S., Pojić M., Živančev D., Hadnađev M., and Dapčević Hadnađev T., 2014. Content of free amino groups during postharvest wheat and flour maturation in relation to gluten quality. Food Chem., 164, 158-165.
Jeantet R., Croguennec T., Schuck P., and Brulé Gérard. (eds), 2016. Handbook of Food Science and Technology 3. Food Biochemistry and Technology. ISTE Ltd., John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Kibar H., 2015. Influence of storage conditions on the quality properties of wheat cultivars. J. Stored Products Res., 62: 8-15.
Linina A. and Ruza A., 2015. Weather conditions effect on fresh and stored winter wheat grain gluten quantity and quality. In: Proc. 25th Congress (NJF) Nordic View to sustainable Rural Development, 16-18 June 2015, Riga, Latvia, 148-153.
Mense A.L. and Faubion J.M., 2017. Effects of aging new crop wheat and flour on breadmaking quality and lipid composition. Cereal Foods World, 62: 4-10.
Okuda R., Tabara A., Okusu H., and Seguchi M., 2016. Measurement of water absorption in wheat flour by mixograph test. Food Sci. Technol. Res., 22: 841-846.
Posner E.S. and Deyoe C.W., 1986. Changes in milling properties of newly harvested hard wheat during storage. Cereal Chem., 63: 451-456.
Sypuła M. and Dadrzyńska A., 2008. Effect of storing time of wheat grain on changes in its quality properties (in Polish). Inżynieria Rolnicza, 1, 371-376.
Tomić J., Pojić M., Torbica A., Rakita S., Živančev D., Janić Hajnal E., Dapčević Hadnađev T., Hadnađev M., 2013. Changes in the content of free sulphydryl groups during postharvest wheat and flour maturation and their influence on technological quality. J. Cereal Sci., 58, 495-501.
Tipples K.H., 1995. Quality and nutritional changes in stored grain, in: Stored grain ecosystems (Eds D.S. Jayas, N.D.G. White, W.E.) Muir Marcel Dekker Inc.
Wang L. and Flores R.A., 1999. The effect of storage on flour quality and baking performance. Food Reviews Int., 15, 215-234.
Witzenberger A., Hack H., and van den Boom T., 1989. Erläuterungen zum BBCH-Dezimal-Code für die Entwick-lungsstadien des Getreides-Mit Abbildungen. Gesunde Pflanzen, 41, 384-388.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top