Effects comparation of different mulching methods on soil in pitaya orchards
Juan Luo 1,2
Min Xu 1
More details
Hide details
Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, No. 58 Renmin Avenue, Haikou 570228, Hainan, P. R. China
University of Sanya, No. 191 Yingbin Avenue Xueyuan Road, Sanya 572000, Hainan, P. R. China
College of Life Science, Hainan University, No. 58 Renmin Avenue, Haikou 570228, Hainan, P. R. China
Final revision date: 2021-09-25
Acceptance date: 2021-10-04
Publication date: 2021-11-12
Int. Agrophys. 2021, 35(3): 269–278
  • NGM (nature grass mulch ), CCM (coconut chaff mulch) and BFM (black fabric mulch) significantly increased the contents of soil available nutrients.
  • The treatments of NGM increased the activities of soil enzymes, especially the acid phosphatase activity.
  • NGM improved the fungal abundance (qPCR) significantly compared with other treatments.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of different mulching treatments, and to serve as a theoretical foundation for mulching practices in pitaya orchards of Hainan, China. In this study, the physicochemical properties, enzyme activity and also the structure and abundance of the soil microbial community were examined after a year’s treatment. The results show that black fabric mulch and nature grass mulch significantly improved the soil water content, whereas its pH value was significantly reduced by purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) mulch and black fabric mulch as compared to the control. Nature grass mulch increased soil organic carbon to a greater extent than control, coconut chaff mulch and also nature grass mulch significantly increased the content of alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen, nature grass mulch and black fabric mulch increased the content of available potassium more significantly than purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) mulch and control. Treatments of nature grass mulch and purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) mulch increased the activities of soil enzymes in the soil. The abundance of bacteria was highest in nature grass mulch and purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) mulch, and the four mulch treatments helped to increase the richness of soil fungi more than control. The results show that all these types of mulch improved the characteristics of the soil compared with control, and nature grass mulch provided the best edaphic environment for pitaya orchards.
A’Bear A.D., Jones T.H., Kandeler E., and Boddy L., 2014. Interactive effects of temperature and soil moisture on fungal-mediated wood decomposition and extracellular enzyme activity. Soil Biol. Biochem., 70, 151-158.
Abdullah A.S., 2014. Minimum tillage and residue management increase soil water content, soil organic matter and canola seed yield and seed oil content in the semiarid areas of Northern Iraq. Soil Till. Res., 144, 150-155.
Adamaviciene A., Romaneckas K., Pilipavicius V., Avizienyte D., Sarauskis E., and Sakalauskas A., 2012. Interaction of maize and living mulch: Soil chemical properties and bioactivity. J. Food Agric. Environ., 10, 1219-1223.
Bardgett R.D., 2010. The biology of soil: a community and ecosystem approach. Soil Use Management (Eds M.J.Crawley, C. Little, T.R.E. Southwood, and S. Ulfstrand). Oxford University Press, UK.
Bokulich N.A. and Mills D.A., 2013. Improved selection of internal transcribed spacer-specific primers enables quantitative, ultra-high-throughput profiling of fungal communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 79, 2519-2526.
Bot A.J., Amado U.C., Mielniczuk J., and Benites J., 2003. Conservation agriculture as a tool to reduce emission of greenhouse gasses. A case from Southern Brazil. Conservation Agriculture: Environment, Farmers Experiences, Innovations, Socio-Economy, Policy.
Burns R.G. et al., 2013. Soil enzymes in a changing environment: Current knowledge and future directions. Soil Biol. Biochem., 58, 216-234.
Cadavid L.F., El-Sharkawy M.A., Acosta A., and Sánchez T., 1998. Long-term effects of mulch, fertilization and tillage on cassava grown in sandy soils in northern Colombia. Field Crops Res., 57, 45-56.
Caravaca F., Aiguacil M.M., Torres P., and Roldan A., 2005. Plant type mediates rhizospheric microbial activities and soil aggregation in a semiarid Mediterranean salt marsh. Geoderma, 124, 375-382.
Chao Z., Liu G., Sha X., and Wang G., 2016. Soil bacterial community dynamics reflect changes in plant community and soil properties during the secondary succession of abandoned farmland in the Loess Plateau. Soil Biol. Biochem., 97, 40-49.
Chen Y., Wen X., Sun Y., Zhang J., Wei W., and Liao Y., 2014. Mulching practices altered soil bacterial community structure and improved orchard productivity and apple quality after five growing seasons. Scientia Hort., 172, 248-257.
Cheng W.X., Kuzyakov Y., Zobel R.W., and Wright S.F., 2005. Root Effects on Soil Organic Matter Decomposition (Eds S. Wright, R. Zobel). Roots and soil management: interactions between roots and the soil. agronomy monograph No. 48. ASA, Madison: 119-143.
Ciric L., Pratten J., Wilson M., and Spratt D., 2010. Development of a novel multi-triplex qPCR method for the assessment of bacterial community structure in oral populations. Environ. Microbiol. Reports, 2, 770-774.
Dang P., Yu X., Le H., Liu J., Shen Z., and Zhao Z., 2017. Effects of stand age and soil properties on soil bacterial and fungal community composition in Chinese pine plantations on the Loess Plateau. Plos One, 12(10): e0186501
Dong W., Si P., Liu E., Yan C., Zhang Z., and Zhang Y., 2017. Influence of film mulching on soil microbial community in a rainfed region of northeastern China. Scientific Reports, 7,
Edgar R.C., 2013. UPARSE: highly accurate OTU sequences from microbial amplicon reads. Nature Methods, 10, 996-1000.
Etten E.V., 2005. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data using CANOCO. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 86, 6-6.
Fang S., Xie B., Liu D., and Liu J., 2011. Effects of mulching materials on nitrogen mineralization, nitrogen availability and poplar growth on degraded agricultural soil. New Forests, 41, 147-162.
Guan S.Y., Zhang D., and Zhang Z., 1986. Soil enzyme and its research methods (in Chinese) (Ed. Q.H. Chen). Agriculture Press, Beijing, China.
Haroun M., 2010. Effect of composting on sludge contaminated with heavy metals from three different tannery streams and their bioavailability to plants. Int. J. Environ. Eng., 2, 429-446.
Hoagland L., Carpenter-Boggs L., Granatstein D., Mazzola M., Smith J., Peryea F., and Reganold J.P., 2008. Orchard floor management effects on nitrogen fertility and soil biological activity in a newly established organic apple orchard. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 45, 11.
Jin K., Sleutel S., Buchan D., Neve S.D., Cai D.X., Gabriels D., and Jin J.Y., 2009. Changes of soil enzyme activities under different tillage practices in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Soil Till. Res., 104, 115-120.
Kembel S.W. et al., 2012. Architectural design influences the diversity and structure of the built environment microbiome. Isme J., 6, 1469-1479.
Legay N. et al., 2014. Contribution of above- and below-ground plant traits to the structure and function of grassland soil microbial communities. Ann. Bot., 114, 1011-1021.
Li F., Chen L., Zhang J., Yin J., and Huang S., 2017. Bacterial community structure after long-term organic and inorganic fertilization reveals important associations between soil nutrients and specific taxa involved in nutrient transformations. Frontiers Microbiol., 8, 187.
Liu J., Bu L., Lin Z., Luo S., Chen X., and Li S., 2014a. Optimizing plant density and plastic film mulch to increase maize productivity and water-use efficiency in semiarid areas. Agronomy J., 106, 1138-1146.
Liu J. et al., 2014b. High throughput sequencing analysis of biogeographical distribution of bacterial communities in the black soils of northeast China. Soil Biol. Biochem., 70, 113-122.
Luo J. et al., 2019. Differential responses of the soil microbial community in two pitaya orchards with different mulch types. Scientific Reports, 9, 10413.
Ma D., Lei C., Qu H., Wang Y., Misselbrook T., and Rui J., 2018. Impacts of plastic film mulching on crop yields, soil water, nitrate, and organic carbon in Northwestern China: A meta-analysis. Agric. Water Manag., 202, 166-173.
Mbah C.N., Nwite J.N., Njoku C., Ibeh L.M., and Igwe T.S., 2014. Physical properties of an ultisol under plastic film and no-mulches and their effect on the yield of maize. World J. Agric. Sci., 6, 160-165.
Meiyan Wu, Lianghuan Wu, Limei Zhao, and Meimei Chen, 2009. Effects of continuous plastic film mulching on paddy soil bacterial diversity. Acta Agric. Scandinavica, 59, 286-294.
Menkis A., Marciulynas A., Gedminas A., Lynikiene J., and Povilaitiene A., 2015. High-Throughput sequencing reveals drastic changes in fungal communities in the phyllosphere of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following invasion of the spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae). Microbial Ecol., 70, 904-911.
Noah F., Bradford M.A., and Jackson R.B., 2007. Toward an ecological classification of soil bacteria. Ecology, 88, 1354-1364.
Pan F., Li Y., Chapman S.J., and Yao H., 2016. Effect of rice straw application on microbial community and activity in paddy soil under different water status. Environ. Sci. Poll. Res., 23, 5941-5948.
Qu B. et al., 2019. Effect of various mulches on soil physico-chemical properties and tree growth (Sophora japonica) in urban tree pits. Plos One, 14: e0210777.
Sanchez J.E. et al., 2003. Orchard floor and nitrogen management influences soil and water quality and tart cherry yields. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci., 128, 277-284.
Schirmel J., Albert J., Kurtz M.P., and Munoz K., 2018. Plasticulture changes soil invertebrate assemblages of strawberry fields and decreases diversity and soil microbial activity. Appl. Soil Ecol., 124, 379-393.
Shibahara F., Yamamuro S., and Inubushi K., 1998. Dynamics of microbial biomass nitrogen as influenced by organic matter application in paddy fields. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 44, 167-178.
Six J., Feller C., Denef K., Ogle S.M., Sa J.C.D., and Albrecht A., 2002. Soil organic matter, biota and aggregation in temperate and tropical soils - Effects of no-tillage. Agronomie, 22, 755-775.
Tabatabai M.A. and Bremner J.M., 1969. Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity. Soil Biol. Biochem., 1, 301-307.
Unger P.W. and Vigil M.F., 1998. Cover crop effects on soil water relationships. J. Soil Water Conserv., 53, 200-207.
Urbina H., Scofield D.G., Cafaro M., and Rosling A., 2016. DNA-metabarcoding uncovers the diversity of soil-inhabiting fungi in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. Mycoscience, 57, 217-227.
Vasileiadis S., Puglisi E., Arena M., Cappa F., Cocconcelli P.S., and Trevisan M., 2012. Soil bacterial diversity screening using single 16S rRNA gene V regions coupled with multi-million read generating sequencing technologies. Plos One, 7: e42671.
Wang K. et al., 2019. Effects of grassland afforestation on structure and function of soil bacterial and fungal communities. Sci. Total Environ., 676, 396-406.
Wei Z., Gong Q., Zhao Z., Jie L., Zhai B., Wang Z., and Li Z., 2018a. Changes in the soil bacterial community structure and enzyme activities after intercrop mulch with cover crop for eight years in an orchard. Eur. J. Soil Biol., 86, 34-41.
Wei Z., Zhao Z., Gong Q., Zhai B., and Li Z., 2018b. Effects of cover crop in an apple orchard on microbial community composition, networks, and potential genes involved with degradation of crop residues in soil. Biol. Fertility Soils, 54, 743-759.
Wu D., Wang Y., Hu S., and Wang N., 2013. Remediation of Soil with Cd, Zn, Pb combined pollution by chlorophytum comosum growth. J. Soil Sci., 44, 1245-1252.
Xiao-Gang L. and Feng-Min L., 2015. Soil organic carbon balance and nitrogen cycling in plastic film mulched croplands in rainfed farming systems. Scientia Agric. Sinica, 48, 4630-4638.
Xiaobo G. Yuannong L., and Yadan D., 2018. Film-mulched continuous ridge-furrow planting improves soil temperature,nutrient content and enzymatic activity in a winter oilseed rape field, Northwest China. J. Arid Land, 10, 362-374.
Xun Q., Jie G, Pan H.J., Zhang K.Y., Wei S., Wang X.J., and Hua G., 2015. Effects of living mulches on the soil nutrient contents, enzyme activities, and bacterial community diversities of apple orchard soils. Eur. J. Soil Biol., 70, 23-30.
Yang Y., Dou Y., Huang Y., and An S., 2017. Links between soil fungal diversity and plant and soil properties on the loess plateau. Frontiers in Microbiol., 8, 2198.
Yao S., Merwin I.A., Bird G.W., Abawi G.S., and Thies J.E., 2005. Orchard floor management practices that maintain vegetative or biomass groundcover stimulate soil microbial activity and alter soil microbial community composition. Plant Soil, 271, 377-389.
Zhang G. and Gong Z., 2012. Soil survey laboratory methods. Science Press, Beijing.
Zhang Y., Dong S., Gao Q., Liu S., Zhou H., Ganjurjav H., and Wang X., 2016. Climate change and human activities altered the diversity and composition of soil microbial community in alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Sci. Total Environ., 562, 353-363.
Zhang Y., Xie Y.S., Hao M.D., and She X.Y., 2010. Effects of different patterns surface mulching on soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in an apple orchard. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, 21, 279-286.