Extruded bread classification on the basis of acoustic emission signal with application of artificial neural networks
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Department of Physics, University of Life Sciences, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Department of Food Engineering and Process Management, Faculty of Food Science, SGGW – Warsaw University of Life Sciences ul. Nowoursynowska 159C, 02-776 Warszawa
Int. Agrophys. 2015, 29(2): 221–229
The presented work covers the problem of developing a method of extruded bread classification with the application of artificial neural networks. Extruded flat graham, corn, and rye breads differening in water activity were used. The breads were subjected to the compression test with simultaneous registration of acoustic signal. The amplitude-time records were analyzed both in time and frequency domains. Acoustic emission signal parameters: single energy, counts, amplitude, and dura­tion acoustic emission were determined for the breads in four water activities: initial (0.362 for rye, 0.377 for corn, and 0.371 for graham bread), 0.432, 0.529, and 0.648. For classification and the clustering process, radial basis function, and self-organ­izing maps (Kohonen network) were used. Artificial neural networks were examined with respect to their ability to classify or to cluster samples according to the bread type, water activity value, and both of them. The best examination results were achieved by the radial basis function network in classification according to water activity (88%), while the self-organizing maps network yielded 81% during bread type clustering.