New slow-release fertilizers – economic, legal and practical aspects: a Review
Monika Wesołowska 1, 2  
,   Jan Rymarczyk 2  
,   Radosław Góra 2  
,   Piotr Baranowski 2  
,   Cezary Sławiński 2  
,   Marta Klimczyk 2
,   Grażyna Supryn 2
,   Lech Schimmelpfennig 1  
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Azoty Group Zakłady Azotowe “Puławy” S.A., al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 13, 24-110 Puławy, Poland
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
Piotr Baranowski   

Department of Metrology and Modelling of Agrophysical Processes, Instytut Agrofizyki PAN Lublin, Poland
Final revision date: 2020-12-01
Acceptance date: 2020-12-04
Publication date: 2021-02-04
Int. Agrophys. 2021, 35(1): 11–24
The improper adjustment of the release characteristics of commonly used mineral fertilizers to the nutritional requirements of plants results in the loss of a significant part of them by infiltration into the soil profile or in the form of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Legal regulations including the national emission ceilings directive, require the Member States of European Union to limit ammonia emissions from agriculture. In order to minimize the losses of valuable nutrients and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it is necessary to find new solutions and technologies in agriculture. Specialists emphasize the beneficial effects of localized fertilization methods and the use of the slow-release/controlled-release fertilizers. Field studies conducted on newly obtained fertilizers prove their beneficial effect on the quality and quantity of the crop but currently the products offered on the market are too expensive to use in large acreage crops. This article presents an overview of some particular economic, legal and practical aspects of slow-release fertilizer production and use. Additionally, the results of field tests indicating their beneficial effect on plant yield, the plant response to stressful conditions and methods for environmental protection are also presented.
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