Publications in year 2018

Vol. 32, Issue 4

ICOS eddy covariance flux-station site setup: a review

International Agrophysics
Year : 2018
DOI : 10.1515/intag-2017-0044
Volumen : 32
Issue : 4
Pages : 471 - 494
Authors: C. Rebmann1, M. Aubinet2, H. Schmid3, N. Arriga4, M. Aurela5, G. Burba6,7, R. Clement8, A. De Ligne2, G. Fratini6, B. Gielen4, J. Grace8, A. Graf9, P. Gross10, S. Haapanala11, M. Herbst12, L. Hörtnagl13, A. Ibrom14, L. Joly15, N. Kljun16, O. Kolle17, A. Kowalski18, A. Lindroth19, D. Loustau20, I. Mammarella21, M. Mauder3, L. Merbold22,23, S. Metzger24,25, M. Mölder19, L. Montagnani26, D. Papale27, M. Pavelka28, M. Peichl29, M. Roland4, P. Serrano-Ortiz30, L. Siebicke31, R. Steinbrecher3, J. Tuovinen5, T. Vesala21,32, G. Wohlfahrt33, D. Franz34

1Department Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Permoserstraße 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany
2TERRA Teaching and Research Centre, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, 5030, Gembloux, Belgium
3Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research – Atmospheric Environmental Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kreuzeckbahnstraße 19, 82467, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
4Research Centre of Excellence Plants and Ecosystems (PLECO), University of Antwerp. Universiteitsplein 1, 2610, Wilrijk, Belgium
5Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101, Helsinki, Finland
6Research and Development, LI-COR Biosciences, 4421 Superior St., Lincoln, NE 68504, USA
7R. B. Daugherty Water for Food Institute, School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583, USA
8School of Geosciences, The University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, EH9 3JN, Edinburgh, UK
9Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Agrosphere (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, 52428 Jülich, Germany
10UMR EEF, French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), 54280 Champenoux, France
11Suvilumi, Ohrahuhdantie 2 B, 00680 Helsinki, Finland
12Centre for Agrometeorological Research (ZAMF), German Meteorological Service, Bundesallee 33, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
13Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092, Zürich, Switzerland
14Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
15Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique GSMA, Université de Reims-Champagne Ardenne, UMR CNRS 7331, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687, Reims 2, France
16Centre for Environmental and Climate Research, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
17Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 10 01 64, 07701, Jena, Germany
18Andalusian Centre for Environmental Research (CEAMA-IISTA), University of Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain
19Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 22362, Lund, Sweden
20INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33140, Villenave d’Ornon, France
21Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Sciences, POBox 68, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
22Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092, Zürich, Switzerland
23Mazingira Centre, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 30709, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya
24National Ecological Observatory Network, Battelle, 1685 38th Street, CO 80301 Boulder, USA
25University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 1225 West Dayton Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA
26Faculty of Science and Technology, Piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
27Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest Systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Largo dell’Università - Blocco D, 01100, Viterbo, Italy
28Department of Matters and Energy Fluxes, Global Change Research Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 60300, Brno, Czech Republic
29Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd, 90183, Umeå, Sweden
30Department of Ecology. Andalusian Centre for Environmental Research (CEAMA–IISTA). University of Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain
31University of Goettingen, Bioclimatology, Büsgenweg 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
32Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Forest Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, POBox 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
33Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Sternwartestrasse 15, Innsbruck, Austria
34Thuenen Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Bundesallee 65, 38116, Braunschweig, Germany
Abstract :

The Integrated Carbon Observation System Research Infrastructure aims to provide long-term, continuous observations of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapour. At ICOS ecosystem stations, the principal technique for measurements of ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of GHGs is the eddy-covariance technique. The establishment and setup of an eddy-covariance tower have to be carefully reasoned to ensure high quality flux measurements being representative of the investigated ecosystem and comparable to measurements at other stations. To fulfill the requirements needed for flux determination with the eddycovariance technique, variations in GHG concentrations have to be measured at high frequency, simultaneously with the wind velocity, in order to fully capture turbulent fluctuations. This requires the use of high-frequency gas analysers and ultrasonic anemometers. In addition, to analyse flux data with respect to environmental conditions but also to enable corrections in the post-processing procedures, it is necessary to measure additional abiotic variables in close vicinity to the flux measurements. Here we describe the standards the ICOS ecosystem station network has adopted for GHG flux measurements with respect to the setup of instrumentation on towers to maximize measurement precision and accuracy while allowing for flexibility in order to observe specific ecosystem features.

Keywords : ICOS, tower set up, protocol, greenhouse gas, eddy covariance technique
Language : English