Effects of rain intensity and initial soil moisture on hydrological responses in laboratory conditions
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Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), P.O. Box 46414-356, Noor 46417-76489, Iran
Department of Water Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Watershed Management, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 578, Sari, Iran
Int. Agrophys. 2015, 29(2): 165–173
Although the possibility of measuring and analysing all parts of the rainfall, infiltration, runoff, and erosion process as a natural hydrologic cycle in field conditions is still one of the more unattainable goals in the hydrological sciences, it can be accomplished in laboratory conditions as a way to understand the whole process. The initial moisture content is one of the most effective factors on soil infiltration, runoff, and erosion responses. The present research was conducted on a 2 m2 laboratory plot at a slope of 9% on a typical sandy-loam soil. The effects of the initial soil moisture content on the infiltration, runoff, and erosion processes were studied at four levels of initial soil moisture content (12, 25, 33, and 40 volumetric percentage) and two rainfall intensities (60 and 120 mm h-1). The results showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation between rainfall intensity and downstream splash, with r = 0.87. The results reflected the theory of hydrological responses, showing significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations with r =-0.93, 0.98, -0.83, 0.88, and 0.73 between the initial soil moisture content and the time-to-runoff, runoff coefficient, drainage as a part of the infiltrated water, downstream splash, and total outflow sediment, respectively.