ICOS eddy covariance flux-station site setup: a review
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Permoserstraße 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany
2
TERRA Teaching and Research Centre, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, 5030, Gembloux, Belgium
3
Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research – Atmospheric Environmental Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kreuzeckbahnstraße 19, 82467, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
4
Research Centre of Excellence Plants and Ecosystems (PLECO), University of Antwerp. Universiteitsplein 1, 2610, Wilrijk, Belgium
5
Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101, Helsinki, Finland
6
Research and Development, LI-COR Biosciences, 4421 Superior St., Lincoln, NE 68504, USA
7
R. B. Daugherty Water for Food Institute, School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583, USA
8
School of Geosciences, The University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, EH9 3JN, Edinburgh, UK
9
Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Agrosphere (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, 52428 Jülich, Germany
10
UMR EEF, French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), 54280 Champenoux, France
11
Suvilumi, Ohrahuhdantie 2 B, 00680 Helsinki, Finland
12
Centre for Agrometeorological Research (ZAMF), German Meteorological Service, Bundesallee 33, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
13
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092, Zürich, Switzerland
14
Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
15
Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique GSMA, Université de Reims-Champagne Ardenne, UMR CNRS 7331, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687, Reims 2, France
16
Centre for Environmental and Climate Research, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
17
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 10 01 64, 07701, Jena, Germany
18
Andalusian Centre for Environmental Research (CEAMA-IISTA), University of Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain
19
Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 22362, Lund, Sweden
20
INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33140, Villenave d’Ornon, France
21
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Sciences, POBox 68, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
22
Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092, Zürich, Switzerland
23
Mazingira Centre, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 30709, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya
24
National Ecological Observatory Network, Battelle, 1685 38th Street, CO 80301 Boulder, USA
25
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 1225 West Dayton Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA
26
Faculty of Science and Technology, Piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
27
Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest Systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Largo dell’Università - Blocco D, 01100, Viterbo, Italy
28
Department of Matters and Energy Fluxes, Global Change Research Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 60300, Brno, Czech Republic
29
Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd, 90183, Umeå, Sweden
30
Department of Ecology. Andalusian Centre for Environmental Research (CEAMA–IISTA). University of Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain
31
University of Goettingen, Bioclimatology, Büsgenweg 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
32
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Forest Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, POBox 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
33
Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Sternwartestrasse 15, Innsbruck, Austria
34
Thuenen Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Bundesallee 65, 38116, Braunschweig, Germany
Publish date: 2018-11-16
 
Int. Agrophys. 2018, 32(4): 471–494
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
The Integrated Carbon Observation System Research Infrastructure aims to provide long-term, continuous observations of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapour. At ICOS ecosystem stations, the principal technique for measurements of ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of GHGs is the eddy-covariance technique. The establishment and setup of an eddy-covariance tower have to be carefully reasoned to ensure high quality flux measurements being representative of the investigated ecosystem and comparable to measurements at other stations. To fulfill the requirements needed for flux determination with the eddycovariance technique, variations in GHG concentrations have to be measured at high frequency, simultaneously with the wind velocity, in order to fully capture turbulent fluctuations. This requires the use of high-frequency gas analysers and ultrasonic anemometers. In addition, to analyse flux data with respect to environmental conditions but also to enable corrections in the post-processing procedures, it is necessary to measure additional abiotic variables in close vicinity to the flux measurements. Here we describe the standards the ICOS ecosystem station network has adopted for GHG flux measurements with respect to the setup of instrumentation on towers to maximize measurement precision and accuracy while allowing for flexibility in order to observe specific ecosystem features.
eISSN:2300-8725
ISSN:0236-8722