ICOS eddy covariance flux-station site setup: a review
Corinna Rebmann 1,   Marc Aubinet 2,   HaPe Schmid 3,   Nicola Arriga 4,   Mika Aurela 5,   George Burba 6,7,   Robert Clement 8,   Anne De Ligne 2,   Gerardo Fratini 6,   Bert Gielen 4,   John Grace 8,   Alexander Graf 9,   Patrick Gross 10,   Sami Haapanala 11,   Mathias Herbst 12,   Lukas Hörtnagl 13,   Andreas Ibrom 14,   Lilian Joly 15,   Natascha Kljun 16,   Olaf Kolle 17,   Andrew Kowalski 18,   Anders Lindroth 19,   Denis Loustau 20,   Ivan Mammarella 21,   Matthias Mauder 3,   Lutz Merbold 22,23,   Stefan Metzger 24,25,   Meelis Mölder 19,   Leonardo Montagnani 26,   Dario Papale 27,   Marian Pavelka 28,   Matthias Peichl 29,   Marilyn Roland 4,   Penélope Serrano-Ortiz 30,   Lukas Siebicke 31,   Rainer Steinbrecher 3,   Juha-Pekka Tuovinen 5,   Timo Vesala 21,32,   Georg Wohlfahrt 33,   Daniela Franz 34
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Department Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Permoserstraße 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany
TERRA Teaching and Research Centre, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, 5030, Gembloux, Belgium
Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research – Atmospheric Environmental Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kreuzeckbahnstraße 19, 82467, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
Research Centre of Excellence Plants and Ecosystems (PLECO), University of Antwerp. Universiteitsplein 1, 2610, Wilrijk, Belgium
Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101, Helsinki, Finland
Research and Development, LI-COR Biosciences, 4421 Superior St., Lincoln, NE 68504, USA
R. B. Daugherty Water for Food Institute, School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583, USA
School of Geosciences, The University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, EH9 3JN, Edinburgh, UK
Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Agrosphere (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, 52428 Jülich, Germany
UMR EEF, French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), 54280 Champenoux, France
Suvilumi, Ohrahuhdantie 2 B, 00680 Helsinki, Finland
Centre for Agrometeorological Research (ZAMF), German Meteorological Service, Bundesallee 33, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092, Zürich, Switzerland
Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique GSMA, Université de Reims-Champagne Ardenne, UMR CNRS 7331, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687, Reims 2, France
Centre for Environmental and Climate Research, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 10 01 64, 07701, Jena, Germany
Andalusian Centre for Environmental Research (CEAMA-IISTA), University of Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain
Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 22362, Lund, Sweden
INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33140, Villenave d’Ornon, France
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Sciences, POBox 68, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092, Zürich, Switzerland
Mazingira Centre, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 30709, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya
National Ecological Observatory Network, Battelle, 1685 38th Street, CO 80301 Boulder, USA
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 1225 West Dayton Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Faculty of Science and Technology, Piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest Systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Largo dell’Università - Blocco D, 01100, Viterbo, Italy
Department of Matters and Energy Fluxes, Global Change Research Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 60300, Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd, 90183, Umeå, Sweden
Department of Ecology. Andalusian Centre for Environmental Research (CEAMA–IISTA). University of Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain
University of Goettingen, Bioclimatology, Büsgenweg 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Forest Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, POBox 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Sternwartestrasse 15, Innsbruck, Austria
Thuenen Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Bundesallee 65, 38116, Braunschweig, Germany
Publication date: 2018-11-16
Int. Agrophys. 2018, 32(4): 471–494
The Integrated Carbon Observation System Research Infrastructure aims to provide long-term, continuous observations of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapour. At ICOS ecosystem stations, the principal technique for measurements of ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of GHGs is the eddy-covariance technique. The establishment and setup of an eddy-covariance tower have to be carefully reasoned to ensure high quality flux measurements being representative of the investigated ecosystem and comparable to measurements at other stations. To fulfill the requirements needed for flux determination with the eddycovariance technique, variations in GHG concentrations have to be measured at high frequency, simultaneously with the wind velocity, in order to fully capture turbulent fluctuations. This requires the use of high-frequency gas analysers and ultrasonic anemometers. In addition, to analyse flux data with respect to environmental conditions but also to enable corrections in the post-processing procedures, it is necessary to measure additional abiotic variables in close vicinity to the flux measurements. Here we describe the standards the ICOS ecosystem station network has adopted for GHG flux measurements with respect to the setup of instrumentation on towers to maximize measurement precision and accuracy while allowing for flexibility in order to observe specific ecosystem features.