Methodological aspects of food texture measurements using tpa test
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Departament of Food Engineering and Machinery, University of Agriculture, Doświadczalna 44, 20-236 Lublin, Poland
Acceptance date: 2000-01-14
Int. Agrophys. 2000, 14(2): 207–213
Acceptable texture in food products is an important component of their quality. A lot of reports on the texture profile analysis of a number of commodities can be found in literature. Conditions under which these tests have been performed vary to a great extent with regards to specimen dimensions, deformation level and compression rate. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of various test conditions on the parameters of texture profile analysis (TPA). Three different types of processed meat products were investigated. The tests were performed using standard INSTRON device at the cross-head speeds of 5, 10 and 20 mm min-1. Cylindrical samples, 10 mm in height and 10, 15, and 20 mm in diameter were compressed to three levels of deformation: 25, 50 and 75%. As a result curves of twin compression could be plotted and values for hardness I, hardness II, elasticity and cohesiveness were obtained. These parameters, except cohesiveness, were modified by dividing them by the initial cross-sectional area of the sample. The results of the present investigation showed that TPA parameters were influenced by the diameter of samples and compression ratio in all the three types of meat products. Thus, TPA parameters of meat products are not comparable if the tests are performed at distinctly different condition. It was stated that the speed of compression had a marginal effect on the TPA parameters. The present investigations showed that there is a need to continue work on the optimisation of conditions for texture measurement using the TPA testing.