Some physiological responses of wheat and bean to soil salinity at low matric suctions
 
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1
Department of Soil Science, University of Zanjan, post code 38791-45371, Zanjan, Iran
2
Department of Soil Science Engineering, College of Agricultural Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Post box 451351666, Iran
3
Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University of Zanjan, post code 38791-45371, Zanjan, Iran
 
Int. Agrophys. 2017, 31(1): 83–91
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ABSTRACT
The effect of soil matric suction (2-33 kPa) and salinity (soil solution electrical conductivity 0.7-8 dS m-1 for bean and 2-20 dS m-1 for wheat) on some physiological characteristics of bean and wheat in a clay loam soil under greenhouse condition was investigated. The results showed that the leaf chlorophyll content index and potassium concentration decrease under salinity stress and increase with matric suction from 2 to 33 kPa suction for both plants. The wheat chlorophyll content index declines during the stress spell but bean chlorophyll content index remains nearly constant. The lowest values of the content of soluble sugars and the highest values of leaf proline content are observed at 2 kPa matric suction (highest aeration stress) for bean and wheat. As matric suction increases from 2 to 6 kPa, the soluble sugars increases and proline content decreases significantly and then soluble sugars decreases and proline content increases until 10 kPa suction, and the soluble sugars remains nearly constant at the higher matric suctions for both plants. While the electrical conductivity effect on the soluble sugars is not significant, the values of proline content for both crop increase significantly with electrical conductivity. It was shown that the aeration stress can result in more considerable and rapid physiological responses, in comparison with salinity stress. There is a strong correlation between wheat and bean chlorophyll content index and potassium concentration under salinity and aeration stresses.
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