Towards long-term standardised carbon and greenhouse gas observations for monitoring Europe´s terrestrial ecosystems: a review
Daniela Franz 1,   Manuel Acosta 2,   Núria Altimir 3,4,   Nicola Arriga 5,   Dominique Arrouays 6,   Marc Aubinet 7,   Mika Aurela 8,   Edward Ayres 9,   Ana López-Ballesteros 10,   Mireille Barbaste 11,   Daniel Berveiller 12,   Sébastien Biraud 13,   Hakima Boukir 6,   Timothy Brown 14,   Christian Brümmer 1,   Nina Buchmann 15,   George Burba 16,17,   Arnaud Carrara 18,   Allessandro Cescatti 19,   Eric Ceschia,   Robert Clement,   Edoardo Cremonese,   Patrick Crill,   Eva Darenova,   Sigrid Dengel,   Petra D’Odorico,   Filippa Gianluca,   Stefan Fleck,   Gerardo Fratini,   Roland Fuß,   Bert Gielen,   Sébastien Gogo,   John Grace,   Alexander Graf,   Achim Grelle,   Patrick Gross,   Thomas Grünwald,   Sami Haapanala,   Markus Hehn,   Bernard Heinesch,   Jouni Heiskanen,   Mathias Herbst,   Christine Herschlein,   Lukas Hörtnagl,   Koen Hufkens,   Andreas Ibrom,   Claudy Jolivet,   Lilian Joly,   Michael Jones,   Ralf Kiese,   Leif Klemedtsson,   Natascha Kljun,   Katja Klumpp,   Pasi Kolari,   Olaf Kolle,   Andrew Kowalski,   Werner Kutsch,   Tuomas Laurila,   Anne De Ligne,   Sune Linder,   Anders Lindroth,   Annalea Lohila,   Bernard Longdoz,   Ivan Mammarella,   Tanguy Manise,   Sara Marañon-Jimenez,   Giorgio Matteucci,   Matthias Mauder,   Philip Meier,   Lutz Merbold,   Simone Mereu,   Stefan Metzger,   Mirco Migliavacca,   Meelis Mölder,   Leonardo Montagnani,   Christine Moureaux,   David Nelson,   Eiko Nemitz,   Giacomo Nicolini,   Mats B. Nilsson,   Maarten Op de Beeck,   Bruce Osborne,   Mikaell Ottosson Löfvenius,   Marian Pavelka,   Matthias Peichl,   Olli Peltola,   Mari Pihlatie,   Andrea Pitacco,   Radek Pokorny,   Jukka Pumpanen,   Céline Ratié,   Marion Schrumpf,   Pavel Sedlák,   Penelope Serrano Ortiz,   Lukas Siebicke,   Ladislav Šigut,   Hanna Silvennoinen,   Guillaume Simioni,   Ute Skiba,   Oliver Sonnentag,   Kamel Soudani,   Patrice Soulé,   Rainer Steinbrecher,   Tiphaine Tallec,   Anne Thimonier,   Eeva-Stiina Tuittila,   Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,   Patrik Vestin,   Gaëlle Vincent,   Caroline Vincke,   Domenico Vitale,   Peter Waldner,   Per Weslien,   Lisa Wingate,   Georg Wohlfahrt,   Mark Zahniser,   Timo Vesala
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Thünen Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Bundesallee 65, 38116, Braunschweig, Germany
Department of Matters and Energy Fluxes, Global Change Research Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 60300, Brno, Czech Republic
Institute for Atmosphere and Earth System Research/ Physics, PO Box 68, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Finland
Forest Sciences Centre of Catalonia, Carretera de St. Llorenç de Morunys km 2, 25280, Solsona, Spain
Research Centre of Excellence Plants and Ecosystems (PLECO), University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium
INRA, US 1106 InfoSol, F-45000 Orléans, France
TERRA Teaching and Research Centre, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium
Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101, Helsinki, Finland
National Ecological Observatory Network, 1685 38th Street, Boulder, CO 80301, United States
School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, D2, Dublin, Ireland
US 1118 USRAVE, French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), 71 ave E. Bourlaux CS20032, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France
Ecologie Systématique Evolution, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 91400 Orsay, France
Climate Sciences Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, B84-153, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Australian Plant Phenomics Facility, ANU Node, Research School of Biology, Plant Science, Australian National University, Acton ACT 2601, Australia
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092, Zürich, Switzerland
Research and Development, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE 68504, USA
Robert B. Daugherty Water for Food Institute and School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
Mediterranean Center for Environmental Studies (CEAM), C/ Charles R. Darwin 14, Parque Tecnológico 46980, Paterna, Spain
European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra, I-21027, Ita
Publication date: 2018-11-16
Int. Agrophys. 2018, 32(4): 439–455
Article (PDF)
Research infrastructures play a key role in launching a new generation of integrated long-term, geographically distributed observation programmes designed to monitor climate change, better understand its impacts on global ecosystems, and evaluate possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. The pan-European Integrated Carbon Observation System combines carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O) observations within the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems and oceans. High-precision measurements are obtained using standardised methodologies, are centrally processed and openly available in a traceable and verifiable fashion in combination with detailed metadata. The Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem station network aims to sample climate and land-cover variability across Europe. In addition to GHG flux measurements, a large set of complementary data (including management practices, vegetation and soil characteristics) is collected to support the interpretation, spatial upscaling and modelling of observed ecosystem carbon and GHG dynamics. The applied sampling design was developed and formulated in protocols by the scientific community, representing a trade-off between an ideal dataset and practical feasibility. The use of open-access, high-quality and multi-level data products by different user communities is crucial for the Integrated Carbon Observation System in order to achieve its scientific potential and societal value.