Towards long-term standardised carbon and greenhouse gas observations for monitoring Europe´s terrestrial ecosystems: a review
Daniela Franz 1
,  
Manuel Acosta 2
,  
Núria Altimir 3, 4
,  
Nicola Arriga 5
,  
Marc Aubinet 7
,  
Mika Aurela 8
,  
Edward Ayres 9
,  
Hakima Boukir 6
,  
Timothy Brown 14
,  
Nina Buchmann 15
,  
George Burba 16, 17
,  
Arnaud Carrara 18
,  
John Grace
,  
Ralf Kiese
,  
Olaf Kolle
,  
Ute Skiba
,  
 
 
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1
Thünen Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Bundesallee 65, 38116, Braunschweig, Germany
2
Department of Matters and Energy Fluxes, Global Change Research Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 60300, Brno, Czech Republic
3
Institute for Atmosphere and Earth System Research/ Physics, PO Box 68, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Finland
4
Forest Sciences Centre of Catalonia, Carretera de St. Llorenç de Morunys km 2, 25280, Solsona, Spain
5
Research Centre of Excellence Plants and Ecosystems (PLECO), University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium
6
INRA, US 1106 InfoSol, F-45000 Orléans, France
7
TERRA Teaching and Research Centre, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium
8
Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101, Helsinki, Finland
9
National Ecological Observatory Network, 1685 38th Street, Boulder, CO 80301, United States
10
School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, D2, Dublin, Ireland
11
US 1118 USRAVE, French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), 71 ave E. Bourlaux CS20032, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France
12
Ecologie Systématique Evolution, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 91400 Orsay, France
13
Climate Sciences Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, B84-153, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
14
Australian Plant Phenomics Facility, ANU Node, Research School of Biology, Plant Science, Australian National University, Acton ACT 2601, Australia
15
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092, Zürich, Switzerland
16
Research and Development, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE 68504, USA
17
Robert B. Daugherty Water for Food Institute and School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
18
Mediterranean Center for Environmental Studies (CEAM), C/ Charles R. Darwin 14, Parque Tecnológico 46980, Paterna, Spain
19
European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra, I-21027, Ita
Publish date: 2018-11-16
 
Int. Agrophys. 2018, 32(4): 439–455
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Research infrastructures play a key role in launching a new generation of integrated long-term, geographically distributed observation programmes designed to monitor climate change, better understand its impacts on global ecosystems, and evaluate possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. The pan-European Integrated Carbon Observation System combines carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O) observations within the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems and oceans. High-precision measurements are obtained using standardised methodologies, are centrally processed and openly available in a traceable and verifiable fashion in combination with detailed metadata. The Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem station network aims to sample climate and land-cover variability across Europe. In addition to GHG flux measurements, a large set of complementary data (including management practices, vegetation and soil characteristics) is collected to support the interpretation, spatial upscaling and modelling of observed ecosystem carbon and GHG dynamics. The applied sampling design was developed and formulated in protocols by the scientific community, representing a trade-off between an ideal dataset and practical feasibility. The use of open-access, high-quality and multi-level data products by different user communities is crucial for the Integrated Carbon Observation System in order to achieve its scientific potential and societal value.
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ISSN:0236-8722