Chemical, biological and respirometry properties of soil under perennial crops fertilized with digestate
More details
Hide details
Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Bioresource Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 2, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Center for Bioeconomy and Renewable Energies, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 2, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Soil Science and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 2, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Entomology, Phytopathology and Molecular Diagnostics, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 2, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Final revision date: 2022-12-16
Acceptance date: 2023-01-03
Publication date: 2023-03-01
Corresponding author
Wioleta Radawiec   

Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Bioresource Engineering, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Poland
Int. Agrophys. 2023, 37(2): 111-128
  • Digestate improves soil chemical and biological properties.
  • Fresh, dried and pyrolized digestate increase soil content of P, K and Mg.
  • Mineralization of pyrolyzed digestate is slower than fresh and dried ones.
  • Pyrolized digestate can contribute to soil carbon sequestration.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thea digestate which originated fromon a widely cultivated perennial crop (Miscanthus giganteus). Cchanges in the physicochemical properties of the soil, the abundance of soil microorganisms, and soil respiration were all assessed. Three types of digestate: fresh in the liquid form, processed – dried and pyrolysed, were tested and compared with mineral fertilization and an unfertilized control. Soil samples were taken in spring 2014, summer 2015 and autumn 2016. In total, 14 variables were analysed: total carbon, hot water extractable carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, pH, bacteria, fungi, O2 intake, CO2 emission, total carbon mineralized after 7- and 100-day-long respiration. Overall, regardless of the form of the digestate, the chemical parameters of the soil improved, although the extent of the improvement depended on the applied form of the digestate. The highest TC 12.79, N 1.29, K 257.95 and P 149.96 g kg–1 DM were determined in the plots fertilized with biochar. All digestate forms had a positive influence on the bacterial DNA abundance, and biochar also affected the abundance of the fungal DNA and the potential carbon sequestration in the soil. Pyrolysed digestate may have a particular value in the fertilization of perennial industrial crops.
This research is the result of a long-term study carried out at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Bioresource Engineering, topic number 30.610.007-110. Project financially supported by the Minister of Education and Science under the program entitled "Regional Initiative of Excellence" for the years 2019-2023, Project No. 010/RID/2018/19, amount of funding 12.000.000 PLN.”
The Authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
Abubaker J., Risberg K., Jönsson E., Dahlin A.S., Cederlund H., and Pell M., 2015. Short-term effects of biogas digestates and pig slurry application on soil microbial activity. Appl. Environ. Soil Sci., 1-15,
Abubaker J., Risberg K., and Pell M., 2012. Biogas residues as fertilisers – Effects on wheat growth and soil microbial activities. Applied Energy, 99, 126-134,
Akhiar A., Battimelli A., Torrijos M., and Carrere H., 2017. Comprehensive characterization of the liquid fraction of digestates from full-scale anaerobic co-digestion. Waste Management, 59, 118-128,
Alburquerque J.A., de la Fuente C., Ferrer-Costa A., Carrasco L., Cegarra J., Abad M., and Bernal M.P., 2012. Assessment of the fertiliser potential of digestates from farm and agroindustrial residues. Biomass and Bioenergy, 40, 181-189,
Ameloot N., Sleutel S., Das K., Kanagaratnam J., and Neve S., 2015. Biochar amendment to soils with contrasting organic matter level: effects on N mineralization and biological soil properties. GCB Bioenergy, 7, 135-144,
Bachmann S., Uptmoor R., and Eichler-Löbermann B., 2016. Phosphorus distribution and availability in untreated and mechanically separated. Sci. Agric., 73(1), 9-17,
Bachmann S., Wentzel S., and Eichler-Löbermann B., 2011. Codigested dairy slurry as a phosphorus and nitrogen source for Zea mays L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 174, 908-915,
Bai M., Wilske B., Buegger F., Bruun E.W., Bach M., Frede H.G., and Breuer L., 2014. Biodegradation measurements confirm the predictive value of the O:C-ratio for biochar recalcitrance. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 77(4), 633-637,
Baldé H., Vander Zaag A.C., Burtt S.D., Wagner-Riddle C., Crolla A., Desjardins R.L., and MacDonald D.J., 2016. Methane emissions from digestate at an agricultural biogas plant. Bioresource Technol., 216, 914-922,
Barłóg P., Hlisnikovský L., and Kunzová E., 2020. Effect of Digestate on Soil Organic Carbon and Plant-Available Nutrient Content Compared to Cattle Slurry and Mineral Fertilization. Agronomy, 10, 379,
Battista F., Frison N., and Bolzonella D., 2019. Energy and nutrients’ recovery in anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass: An Italian perspective for future applications. Energies, 12(17), 3287,
Beesley L., Moreno-Jiménez E., Gomez-Eyles J., Harris E., Robinson B., and Sizmur T., 2011. A review of biochars’ potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils. Environ. Pollut., 159(12), 3269-3282,
Beni C., Servadio P., Marconi S., Neri U., Aromolo R., and Diana G., 2012. Anaerobic digestate administration: effect on soil physical and mechanical behavior. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 43(5), 821-834,
Blackwell P., Riethnuller G., and Collins M., 2009. Biochar Application to Soil. In: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science Technology (Eds J. Lehman, S. Joseph). London, 207-226.
Bornemann L., Welp G., Brodowski S., Rodionov A., and Amelung W., 2008. Rapid assessment of black carbon in soil organic matter using mid-infrared spectroscopy. Org. Geochem., 39(11), 1537-1544,
Brod E., Øgaard A.F., Wragg D., Haraldsen T.K., and Krogstad T., 2015. Waste products as alternative phosphorus fertilisers part I: inorganic P species affect fertilisation effects depending on soil pH. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 103, 167-185,
Bruun E.W., Hauggaard-Nielsen H., Ibrahim N., Egsgaard H., Ambus P., Jensen P.A., and Dam-Johansen K., 2011. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil. Biomass Bioenerg., 35(3), 1182-1189,
Bułkowska K., Pokój T., Klimiuk E., and Gusiatin Z.M., 2012. Optimization of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of Zea mays and Miscanthus sacchariflorus silages with various pig manure dosages. Bioresour. Technol., 125, 208-216,
Burrell L.D., Zehetner F., Rampazzo N., Wimmer B., and Soja G., 2016. Long-term effects of biochar on soil physical properties. Geoderma, 282, 96-102,
Cabrera A., Cox L., Spokas K., Celis R., Hermosin M.C., Cornejo J., and Koskinen W.C., 2011. Comparative sorption and leaching study of the herbicides fluometuron and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) in a soil amended with biochars and other sorbents. J. Agric. Food Chem., 59, 12550-12560,
Castro L., Escalante H., Jaimes-Estévez J., Díaz L.J., Vecino K., Rojas G., and Mantilla L., 2017. Low cost digester monitoring under realistic conditions: rural use of biogas and digestate quality. Bioresource Technology, 239, 311-317,
Cwalina-Ambroziak B. and Bowszys T., 2009. Changes in fungal communities in organically fertilized soil. Plant, Soil and Environment, 55, 25-32,
Cwalina-Ambroziak B. and Wierzbowska J., 2011. Soil fungal communities shaped under the influence of organic fertilization. J. Elem., 16(3), 365-375,
de Boer W., Folman L.B., Summerbell R.C., and Boddy L., 2005. Living in a fungal world: impact of fungi on soil bacterial niche development. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 29, 795-811,
Degens B.P., 1998. Microbial functional diversity can be influenced by the addition of simple organic substrates to soil. Soil Biol. Biochem., 30, 1981-1988,
Diochon A., Gregorich E.G., and Tarnocai C., 2013. Evaluating the quantity and biodegradability of soil organic matter in some Canadian Turbic Cryosols. Geoderma, 202-203, 82-87,
Fang Y., Singh B., and Singh B.P., 2015. Effect of temperature on biochar priming effects and its stability in soils. Soil Biol. Biochem., 80, 136-145,
Fernández-Bayo J.D., Achmon Y., Harrold D.R., McCurry D.G., Hernandez K., Dahlquist-Willard R.D., Stapleton J.J., Vander Gheynst J.S., and Simmons Ch.W., 2017. Assessment of two solid anaerobic digestate soil amendments for effects on soil quality and biosolarization efficacy. J. Agric. Food Chem., 65(17),
Galvez A., Sinicco T., Cayuela M.L., Mingorance M.D., Fornasier F., and Mondini C., 2012. Short term effects of bioenergy by-products on soil C and N dynamics, nutrient availability and biochemical properties. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 160, 3-14,
Ginebra M., Muñoz C., Calvelo-Pereira R., Doussoulin M., and Zagal E., 2022. Biochar impacts on soil chemical properties, greenhouse gas emissions and forage productivity: A field experiment. Sci. Total Environ., 806, 2, 150465,
Goberna M., Podmirseg S.M., Waldhuber S., Knapp B.A., García C., and Insam H., 2011. Pathogenic bacteria and mineral N in soil following the land spreading of biogas digestates and fresh manure. Appl. Soil Ecol., 49, 18-25,
Gong W., Yan X., Wang J., Hu T., and Gong Y., 2009. Long-term manure and fertilizer effects on soil organic matter fractions and microbes under a wheat-maize cropping system in northern China. Geoderma, 149, 318-324,
Gregorich E.G., Beare M.H., Stoklas U., and St-Georges P., 2003. Biodegradability of soluble organic matter in maize cropped soils. Geoderma, 113, 237-252,
Grigatti M., Boanini E., Bolzonella D., Sciubba L., Mancarella S., Ciavatta C., and Marzadori C., 2019. Organic wastes as alternative sources of phosphorus for plant nutrition in a calcareous soil. Waste Manag., 93, 34-46,
Guo O., Yan L., Korpelainen H., Niinemets Ü., and Li C., 2019. Plant-plant interactions and N fertilization shape soil bacterial and fungal communities. Soil Biol. Biochem., 128, 127-138,
Hardie M., Clothier B., Bound S., Oliver G., and Close D., 2014. Does biochar influence soil physical properties and soil water availability? Plant Soil, 376, 347-361,
Hardy B., Sleutel S., Dufey J.E., and Cornelis J.T., 2019. The long-term effect of biochar on soil microbial abundance, activity and community structure is overwritten by land management. Front. Environ. Sci., 7, 110,
Jia X., Zhong Y., Liu J., Zhu G., Shangguana Z., and Yana W., 2020. Effects of nitrogen enrichment on soil microbial characteristics: From biomass to enzyme activities. Geoderma, 366, 114256,
Jindo K., Mizumoto H., Sawada Y., Sanchez-Monedero M.A., and Sonoki T., 2014. Physical and chemical characterization of biochars derived from different agricultural residues. Biogeosciences, 11, 6613-6621,
Jining Z., Fan L., Chenghao L., Liming S., and Pinjing H., 2014. Humification characterization of biochar and its potential as a composting amendment. Res. J. Environ. Sci., 26, 390-397,
Jones D.L., Murphy D.V., Khalid M., Ahmad W., Jones G.J., and Deluca T.H., 2011. Short-term biochar-induced increase in soil CO2 release is both biotically and abiotically mediated. Soil Biol. Biochem., 43, 1723-1731,
Jurgutis L., Šlepetienė A., Amalevičiūtė-Volungė K., Volungevičius J., and Šlepetys J., 2021. The effect of digestate fertilisation on grass biogas yield and soil properties in field-biomass-biogas-field renewable energy production approach in Lithuania. Biomass Bioenerg., 153, 106211,
Kaparaju P.L.N. and Rintala J.A., 2008. Effects of solid-liquid separation on recovering residual methane and nitrogen from digested dairy cow manure. Biores. Technol., 9, 120-127,
Karimi B., Sadet-Bourgeteau S., Cannavacciuolo M., Chauvin C., Flamin C., Haumont A., Jean-Baptiste V., Reibel A., Vrignaud G., and Ranjard L., 2022. Impact of biogas digestates on soil microbiota in agriculture: a review. Environ. Chem. Lett., 20, 3265-3288,
Keith A., Singh B., and Singh B.P., 2011. Interactive priming of biochar and labile organic matter mineralization in a smectite-rich soil. Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 9611-9618,
Kim Y.S., Yi M.J., Lee Y.Y., Son Y., and Koike T., 2012. Characteristics of soil CO2 efflux in even-aged alder compared to Korean pine plantations in Central Korea. J. Forest Sci., 28(4), 232-241,
Knoblauch C., Maarifat A.A., Pfeiffer E.M., and Haefele S.M., 2011. Degradability of black carbon and its impact on trace gas fluxes and carbon turnover in paddy soils. Soil Biol. Biochem., 43, 1768-1778,
Koszel M. and Lorencowicz E., 2015. Agricultural use of biogas digestate as a replacement fertilizers. Agric. Agric. Sci. Proc., 7, 119-124,
Krzywy-Gawrońska E., 2013. Effect of combustion wastes and sewage sludge compost on the chemical properties of soil. Pol. J. Chem. Technol., 15(3), 48-54,
Kucharski J. and Wałdowska E., 2001. Biological results of long-term fertilization with slurry. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln., 476, 197-204.
Kulczycki G., Magnucka E.G., Oksińska M., Kucińska J., Kobyłecki R., Pawleska K., Zarzycki R., Kacprzak A., and Pietr S.P., 2020. The effect of various types of biochar mixed with mineral fertilization on the development and ionome of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings and soil properties in a pot experiment. Agronomy, 10, 1903,
Kuzyakov Y., Bogomolova I., and Glaser B., 2014. Biochar stability in soil: Decomposition during eight years and transformation as assessed by compound-specific 14C analysis. Soil Biol. Biochem., 70, 229-236,
Lazcano C., Gómez-Brandón M., Revilla P., and Domínguez J., 2013. Short-term effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil microbial community structure and function. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 49, 723-733,
Lee Y., Park J., Ryu C., Gang K.S., Yang W., Park Y.K., Jung J., and Hyun S., 2013. Comparison of biochar properties from biomass residues produced by slow pyrolysis at 500°C. Biores. Technol., 148, 196-201,
Lehman J., Czimczik C., Laird D., and Sohi S., 2009. Stability of Biochar in Soil. In: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science Technology (Eds J. Lehman, S. Joseph). London, UK.
Lehmann J., 2007. Bioenergy in the black. Front. Ecol. Environ., 5, 381-387,
Lehmann J., Gaunt J., and Rondon M., 2006. BIO-CHAR sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems - a review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11, 403-427,
Lehmann J., Rillig M.C., Thies J., Masiello C.A, Hockaday W.C., and Crowley D., 2011. Biochar effects on soil biota. Soil Biol. Biochem., 43(9),
Li Y.C., Li Y.F., Chang S.X., Liang X., Qin H., Chen J.H., and Xu Q., 2017. Linking soil fungal community structure and function to soil organic carbon chemical composition in intensively managed subtropical bamboo forests. Soil Biol. Biochem., 107, 19-31,
Liang B., Lehmann J., Sohi S.P., Thies J.E., Neill B.O., Trujillo L., Gaunt J., Solomon D., Grossman J., Neves E.G., and Luizão F.J., 2010. Black carbon affects the cycling of non-black carbon in soil. Org. Geochem., 41, 206-213,
Liu C., Lu M., Cui J., Li B., and Fang C., 2014. Effects of straw carbon input on carbon dynamics in agricultural soils: A meta-analysis. Global Chang. Biol., 1366-1381,
Liu Y., Chen Y., Wang Y., Lu H., He L., and Yang S., 2018. Negative priming effect of three kinds of biochar on the mineralization of native soil organic carbon. Land Degrad. Dev., 29, 3985- 3994,
Lošák T., Čermák P., and Hlušek J., 2012. Changes in fertilisation and liming of soils of the Czech Republic for the past 20 years. Agroma Soil Sci., 58,
Luo Y., Durenkamp M., De Nobili M., Lin Q., and Brookes P.C., 2011. Short term soil priming effects and the mineralisation of biochar following its incorporation to soils of different pH. Soil Biol. Biochem., 43, 11, 2304-2314,
Mandic L., Djukic D., and Pesakovic M., 2012. Microbial characteristics of vertisol under different fertilization systems. J. Cent. Eur. Agric., 13(1), 1-9,
Marchetti R., Castelli F., Orsi A., Sghedoni L., and Bochicchio D., 2012. Biochar from swine manure solids: influence on carbon sequestration and Olsen phosphorus and mineral nitrogen dynamics in soil with and without digestate in-corporation. Ital. J. Agron., 7, 189-195,
Martin K. and Rygiewcz P., 2005. Fungal specific PCR primers developed for analysis of the ITS region of environmental DNA extracts. BMC Microbiol., 5, 28-39.
Meng J., Tao M., Wang L., Liu X., and Xu J., 2018. Changes in heavy metal bioavailability and speciation from a Pb-Zn mining soil amended with biochars from co-pyrolysis of rice straw and swine manure. Sci. Total Environ., 633, 300-307,
Menšík L., Hlisnikovský L., Pospíšilová L., and Kunzová E., 2008. The effect of application of organic manures and miner-al fertilizers on the state of soil organic matter and nutrients in the long-term field experiment. J. Soils Sediments, 18, 2813-2822,
Mohan D., Sarswat A., Ok Y.S., and Pittman Jr. C.U., 2014. Organic and inorganic contaminants removal from water with biochar, a renewable, low cost and sustainable adsorbent. Biores. Technol., 160, 191-202,
Möller K., Stinner W., Deuker A., and Leithold G., 2008. Effects of different manuring systems with and without biogas digestion on nitrogen cycle and crop yield in mixed organic farming systems. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 82, 209-232,
Nabel M., Bueno D., Barbosa P., Horsch D., and Jablonowski N.D., 2014. Energy crop (Sida hermaphrodita) fertilization using digestate under marginal soil conditions: a dose-response experiment, Energy Procedia, 16,
Nabel M., Temperton V.M., Poorter H., Lücke A., and Jablonowski N.D., 2016. Energizing marginal soils - The establishment of the energy crop Sida hermaphrodita as dependent on digestate fertilization, NPK, and legume intercropping. Biomass Bioenerg., 87,
Nakamya J., Tumuhairwe J.B., Sabiiti E.N., Strachan N.J.C., Avery L.M., and Smith J., 2020. Influence of biogas digesters on faecal indicator organisms in digestate and around homesteads in Ethiopia. Biomass Bioenerg., 142, 105746,
Ndubuisi-Nnaji U.U., Adegoke A.A., Ogbu H.I., Ezenobi N.O., and Okoh A.I., 2011. Effect of long-term organic fertilizer application on soil microbial dynamics. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10(4), 556-559.
Nelissen V., Saha B.K., Ruysschaert G., and Boeckx P., 2014. Effect of different biochar and fertilizer types on N2O and NO emissions. Soil Biol. Biochem., 70, 244-255,
Odlare M., Pell M., and Svensson K., 2008. Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues. Waste Manag., 28, 1246-1253,
Ogwang I., Kasedde H., Nabuuma B., Kirabira J.B., and Lwanyaga J.D., 2021. Characterization of biogas digestate for solid biofuel production in Uganda. Scientific African, 12, e00735,
Ojeda G., Mattana S., Àvila A., Alcañiz J.M., Volkmann M., and Bachmann J., 2015. Are soil-water functions affected by biochar application? Geoderma, 249-250, 1-11,
Panuccio M.R., Romeo F., Mallamaci C., and Muscolo M., 2021. Digestate application on two different soils: agricultural benefit and risk. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 12, 4341-4353,
Pranagal J., Oleszczuk P., Tomaszewska-Krojańska D., Kraska P., and Różyło K., 2017. Effect of biochar application on the physical properties of Haplic Podzol. Soil Till. Res., 174, 92-103,
Pratt R.G., 2008. Fungal population levels in soils of commercial swine waste disposal sites and relationships to soil nutrient concentrations. Appl. Soil Ecol., 38, 223-229,
Radawiec W., Dubicki M., Karwowska A., Żelazna K., and Gołaszewski J., 2014. Biochar from a digestate as an energy product and soil improver. Agric. Engin., 3(151), 149-156,
Razzaghi F., Obourb P.B., and Arthur E., 2020. Does biochar improve soil water retention? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Geoderma, 361, 114-155,
Risberg K., Cederlund H., Pell M., Arthurson V., and Schnürer A., 2017. Comparative characterization of digestate versus pig slurry and cow manure - Chemical composition and effects on soil microbial activity. J. Waste Manag., 61, 529-538,
Robertson G.P., Coleman D.C., Bledsoe C.S., and Phillip S., 1999. Standard Soil Methods for Long Term Ecological Research. Oxford University Press. New York.
Roubík H., Mazancová J., Phung L.D., and Banout J., 2018. Current approach to manure management for small-scale Southeast Asian farmers - Using Vietnamese biogas and non-biogas farms as an example, Renew. Energy, 115, 362-370,
Sapp M., Harrison M., Hany U., Charlton A., and Thwaites R., 2015. Comparing the effect of digestate and chemical fertiliser on soil bacteria. Appl. Soil Ecol., 86, 1-9,
Schmidt M.W.I. and Noack A.G., 2000. Black carbon in soils and sediments: analysis, distribution, implications, and cur-rent challenges. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 777-793,
Schulz H. and Glaser B., 2012. Effects of biochar compared to organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil quality and plant growth in a greenhouse experiment. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 175, 410-422,
Schwendenmann L., Pendall E., and Potvin C., 2007. Surface soil organic carbon pools, mineralization and CO(2) efflux rates under different land-use types in Central Panama. Stability of Tropical Rainforest Margins: Linking Ecological, Economic and Social Constraints of Land Use and Conservation, 109-131.
Siebielec G., Siebielec S., and Lipski D., 2018. Long-term impact of sewage sludge, digestate and mineral fertilizers on plant yield and soil biological activity. J. Clean. Prod., 187, 372-379,
Sigua G.C, Novak J.M., Watts D.W., Cantrell K.B., Shumaker P.D., Szögi A.A., and Johnson M.G., 2014. Carbon mineralization in two ultisols amended with different sources and particle sizes of pyrolyzed biochar. Chemosphere, 103, 313-321,
Six J., Frey S.D., Thiet R.K., and Batten K.M., 2006. Bacterial and fungal contributions to carbon sequestration in agroecosystems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 70, 555-569,
Smith K.A., Metcalfe P., Grylls J., Jeffrey W., and Sinclair A., 2007. Nutrient Value of Digestate from Farm-Based Biogas Plants in Scotland. Report for Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department - ADA/009/06.
Sparling G., Vojvodic-Vukovic M., and Schipper L.A., 1998. Hot-water-soluble C as a simple measure of labile soil organic matter: the relationship with microbial biomass C. Soil Biol. Biochem., 30(10/11), 1469-1472,
Spokas K.A., Baker J.M., and Reicosky D.C., 2010. Ethylene: potential key for biochar amendment impacts. Plant Soil, 333, 443-452,
Stenberg B., 1999. Monitoring soil quality of arable land: microbiological indicators. Acta Agric. Scand., Soil Plant Sci., 49, 1-24,
Tambone F. and Adani F., 2017. Nitrogen mineralization from digestate in comparison to sewage sludge, compost and urea in a laboratory incubated soil experiment. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 180, 355-365,
Tan Z., Lin C.S.K., Ji X., and Rainey T.J., 2017. Returning biochar to fields: A review. Appl. Soil Ecol., 116, 1-11,
Tian J., McCormack L., Wang J., Guo D., Wang Q., Zhang X., Yu G., Blagodatskaya E., and Kuzyakov Y., 2015. Linkages between the soil organic matter fractions and the microbial metabolic functional diversity within a broad-leaved Korean pine forest. Eur. J. Soil Biol., 66, 57-64,
Topoliantz S., Ponge J.P., Arrouays D., Ballof S., and Lavelle P., 2002. Effect of organic manure and the endogeic earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) on soil fertility and bean production. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 36, 313-319,
Troy S.M., Lawlor P.G., O’Flynn C.J., and Healy M.G., 2013. Impact of biochar addition to soil on greenhouse gas emissions following pig manure application. Soil Biol. Biochem., 60, 173-181,
Tryon E.H., 1948. effect of charcoal on certain physical chemical, and biological properties of forest soils. Ecol. Monogr., 18, 81-115,
Walsh J.J., Jones D.L., Edwards-Jones G., and Prysor Williams A.P., 2012. Replacing inorganic fertilizer with anaerobic digestate may maintain agricultural productivity at less environmental cost. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 175(6), 840-845,
Wang C., Kong Y., Hu R., and Zhou G., 2020. Miscanthus: A fast-growing crop for environmental remediation and biofuel production. GCB Bioenergy, 13, 58-69,
Wang J., Xiong Z., and Kuzyakov Y., 2016. Biochar stability in soil: meta-analysis of decomposition and priming effects. GCB Bioenergy, 8, 512-523,
Wolna-Maruwka A., Sawicka A., and Kayzer D., 2007. Size of selected groups of microorganisms and soil respiration activity fertilized by municipal sewage sludge. Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 16(1), 129-138.
Yang Y., Sun K., Han L., Chen Y., Liu J., and Xing B., 2022. Biochar stability and impact on soil organic carbon mineralization depend on biochar processing, aging and soil clay content. Soil Biol. Biochem., 169, 108657,
Yu Z., Chen L., Pan S., Li Y., Kuzyakov Y., Xu J., Brookes P.C., and Luo Y., 2018. Feedstock determines biochar-induced soil priming effects by stimulating the activity of specific microorganisms. Eur. J. Soil Sci., 69, 521-534,
Zeng J., Liu X., Song L., Lin X., Zhang H., Shen C., and Chu H., 2016. Nitrogen fertilization directly affects soil bacterial diversity and indirectly affects bacterial community composition. Soil Biol. Biochem., 92, 41-49,
Zhang Q., Zhou W., Liang G., Wang X., Sun J., He P., and Li L., 2015 Effects of different organic manures on the biochemical and microbial characteristics of albic paddy soil in a short-term experiment. PLOS One, 10(4),
Zhao B., O'Connor D., Zhang J., Peng T., Shen Z., Tsang D.C.W., and Hou D., 2018. Effect of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, and residence time on rapeseed stem derived biochar. J. Clean. Prod., 174, 977-987,
Zhen Z., Liu H., Wang N., Guo L., Meng J., Ding N., Wu G., and Jiang G., 2014. Effects of manure compost application on soil microbial community diversity and soil microenvironments in a temperate cropland in China. PLOS One, 9(10),
Zheng H., Wang X., Luo X., Wang Z., and Xing B., 2018. Biochar-induced negative carbon mineralization priming effects in a coastal wetland soil: Roles of soil aggregation and microbial modulation. Sci. Total Environ., 610-611, 951-960,
Zheng H., Wanga Z., Denga X., Herbert S., and Xing B., 2013. Impacts of adding biochar on nitrogen retention and bioavailability in agricultural soil. Geoderma, 206, 32-39,
Zhong W., Gu T., Wang W., Zhang B., Lin X., Huang Q., and Shen W., 2010. The effect of mineral fertilizer and organic manure on soil microbial community and diversity. Plant and Soil, 326, 511-522,
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top