Spatiotemporal temperature distribution in the canopy of summer-to-autumn flowering chrysanthemum under different zone cooling methods
More details
Hide details
Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, 819-0395, Fukuoka, Japan
Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, 819-0395, Fukuoka, Japan
Fukuoka Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, 16-3 Ishigaki, Tanushimaru, Kurume, 839-0827, Fukuoka, Japan
Final revision date: 2023-01-05
Acceptance date: 2023-01-10
Publication date: 2023-03-09
Corresponding author
Daisuke Yasutake   

Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, 819-0395, Fukuoka, Japan
Int. Agrophys. 2023, 37(2): 129-139
  • Different zone cooling methods were applied to the chrysanthemum canopy.
  • Spatiotemporal temperature distribution under the zone cooling was elucidated.
  • The base cooling efficiently cooled the canopy both during the day and night.
  • The top cooling method efficiently maintained the optimum temperature at night.
Avoiding high-temperature stress effectively can ensure sufficient plant production in hot seasons. Therefore, we proposed the use of zone cooling to decrease the temperatures around the chrysanthemum canopy using a heat pump and duct at the bottom (base cooling), top (top cooling), and above (above-top cooling) the canopy. The spatiotemporal distribution of temperatures (air, leaf, and stem temperatures) was measured under the various zone cooling treatments applied, and compared with those under the treatments which were not subjected to cooling (no cooling) and were entirely cooled (entire cooling). The air temperature around the targeted cooling regions and some plant temperatures declined substantially under the base and top cooling treatments at night, but such a decline was not observed with the above-top cooling treatment. During the day, the cooled region under top cooling was directly affected by solar radiation, but this region was unaffected under the base cooling treatment. The cold air was maintained at the bottom. The results indicate that solar radiation substantially influenced spatiotemporal temperature distribution. Moreover, base cooling was found to be the most effective method during both day and night. Thus, this study examines the spatiotemporal temperature distribution under zone cooling methods in the chrysanthemum canopy, thereby advancing our understanding of the fundamental knowledge required for the establishment of a practical zone cooling system.
We are grateful to the staff members from the Fukuoka Agriculture and Forestry Research Centre, and to former and current students from the Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology, Kyushu University for their warm support in conducting our experiments.
This study was financially supported by the Grant in Aid for Scientific Research (No. 20KK0148) (2020-2023) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
The Authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
Aubrecht D.M., Helliker B.R., Goulden M.L., Roberts D.A., Still C.J., and Richardson A.D., 2016. Continuous, long-term, high-frequency thermal imaging of vegetation: Uncertainties and recommended best practices. Agric. For. Meteorol., 228-229, 315-326,
Blanchard M.G. and Runkle E.S., 2010. Quantifying the thermal flowering rates of eighteen species of annual bedding plants. Sci. Hortic., 128, 30-37,
Cockshull K.E. and Kofranec A.M., 1994. High night temperatures delay flowering, produce abnormal flowers and retard stem growth of cut-flower chrysanthemums. Sci. Hortic., 56, 217-234,
Flerchinger G.N., Xiao W., Sauer T.J., and Yu Q., 2009. Simulation of within-canopy radiation exchange. NJAS-Wagening. J. Life Sci., 57, 5-15,
Garner H.M. and Armitage A.M., 2008. Cooling and long-day lighting influences growth and flowering of Phlox paniculata L. ‘Ice Cap’ used for cut flowers. Hortic Sci., 43(3), 707-709,
Higashiura M., Kajihara S., Uno Y., and Yamanaka M., 2020. Effects of temperature and timing/duration of night cooling treatments on flowering time and quality of cut flowers of standard type carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). Sci. Hortic., 89(1), 61-68,
Hidaka K., Dan K., Imamura H., and Takayama T., 2017. Crown-cooling treatment induces earlier flower bud differentiation of strawberry under high air temperatures. Environ. Control Biol., 55(1), 21-27,
Hidaka K., Nakahara S., Yasutake D., Zhang Y., Okayasu T., Dan K., Kitano M., and Sone K., 2022. Crop-local CO2 enrichment improves strawberry yield and fuel use efficiency in protected cultivations. Sci. Hortic., 301, 111104,
Karlsson M.G., Heins R.D., Erwin J.E., Berghage R.D., Carlsson W.H., and Biernbaum J.A., 1989. Irradiance and temperature effects on time of development and flower size in chrysanthemum. Sci. Hortic., 39, 257-267,
Kawasaki Y., Suzuki K., Yasuba K., and Takaichi M., 2011. Effect of local air heating by a hanging duct near the tomato shoot apex and flower clusters on vertical temperature distribution, fruit yield and fuel consumption (in Japanese). Hortic. J., 10(3), 395-400,
Kawasaki Y. and Ahn D., 2015. Local cooling at night around flowering trusses improved yield of tomato grown under hot conditions (in Japanese). J. Sci. High Technol. Agric., 27(3), 137-143,
Kawasaki Y. and Yoneda Y., 2019. Local temperature control in greenhouse vegetable production. Hortic. J., 88(3), 305-314,
Kimura K., Yasutake D., Koikawa K., and Kitano M., 2020. Spatiotemporal variability of leaf photosynthesis and its linkage with microclimates across an environment-controlled greenhouse. Biosyst. Engin., 195, 97-115,
Klock K.A., Graves W.R., and Taber H.G., 1996. Growth and phosphorus, zinc, and manganese content of tomato, muskmelon, and honey locust at high root-zone temperatures. J. Plant Nutr., 19, 795-806,
Kwack Y., Kim D.S., and Chun C., 2014. Root-zone cooling affects growth and development of paprika transplants grown in rockwool cubes. Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol., 55(1), 14-18,
Lambers H. and Oliveira R.S., 2019. Plant physiological ecology. New York: Springer,
Lingle J.C. and Davis R.M., 1959. The influence of soil temperature and phosphorus fertilization on the growth and mineral absorption of tomato seedlings. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 73, 312-322.
Liu X., Yang S., Chen X., Liu S., Zhou R., Guo L., Sun Y., and Cao Y., 2022. Performance evaluation of a water-circulating tomato root-zone substrate-cooling system using a chiller and its effect on tomato vegetative growth in Chinese solar greenhouse. Agronomy, 12(8), 1922,
Matsui T. and Eguchi H., 1971. Effects of environmental factors on leaf temperature in a temperature-controlled room. Environ. Control Biol., 8, 27-31,
Matsui T. and Eguchi H., 1972. Effects of environmental factors on leaf temperature in a temperature-controlled room. II. Effect of air movement. Environ. Control Biol., 10, 15-18,
Miyoshi Y., Hidaka K., Okayasu T., Yasutake D., and Kitano M., 2017. Effects of local CO2 enrichment on strawberry cultivation during the winter season. Environ. Control Biol., 55, 165-170,
Monsi M. and Saeki T., 2005. On the factor light in plant communities and its importance for matter production. Ann. Bot., 95, 549-567,
Muramatsu Y. and Kubota S., 2021. The development of a root-zone environmental control system (N.RECS) and its application to flower production. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 90(3), 239-246,
Niu G., Heins R.D., Cameron A.C., and Carlson W.H., 2001. Temperature and daily light integral influence plant quality and flower development of Campanula carpatica ‘Blue Clips’, ‘Deep Blue Clips’, and Campanula ‘Birch Hybrid’. Hortic. Sci., 36, 664-668,
Nkansah G.O. and Ito T., 1995. Effect of air and root-zone temperatures on physiological characteristics and yield of heat-tolerant and non heat-tolerant tomato cultivars. Hortic. J., 64, 315-320,
Nozaki K. and Fukai S., 2008. Effects of high temperature on floral development and flowering in spray chrysanthemum. J. Appl. Hortic., 10(1), 8-14,
Oh W., Park J.H., Kim H.K., Rhie Y.H., Chun C., and Kim K.S., 2007. Root-zone cooling improves growth of Cyclamen persicum under hear stress. Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol., 48(1), 68-72.
Sethi V.P. and Sharma S.K., 2007. Survey of cooling technologies for worldwide agricultural greenhouse applications. Sol. Energy, 81, 1447-1459,
Tardieu F., Reymond M., Hamard P., Granier C., and Muller B., 2000. Spatial distributions of expansion rate, cell division rate and cell size in maize leaves: a synthesis of the effects of soil water status, evaporative demand and temperature. J. Exp. Bot., 51, 1505-1514,
Wahid A., Gelani S., Ashraf M., and Foolad M.R., 2007. Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environ. Exp. Bot., 61, 199-223,
Warner R.M. and Erwin J.E., 2005. Prolonged high temperature exposure and daily light integral impact growth and flowering of five herbaceous ornamental species. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 130(3), 319-325,
Warner R.M. and Erwin J.E., 2006. Prolonged high-temperature expose differentially reduces growth and flowering of 12 Viola × wittrockiana Gams. Cvs. Sci. Hortic., 108, 295-302,
Whealy C.A., Nell T.A., Barrett J.E., and Larson R.A., 1987. High temperature effects on growth and floral development in chrysanthemum. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 112, 464-468,
Wilkins H.F., Healy W.E., and Grueber K.L., 1990. Temperature regime at various stages of production influences growth and flowering of Denfranthema×grandiflorum. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 115, 732-736,
Xu Q. and Huang B., 2000. Effects of differential air and soil temperature on carbohydrate metabolism in creeping bentgrass. Crop Sci., 40(5), 1368-1374,
Xu Q., Huang B., and Wang Z., 2002. Photosynthetic responses of creeping bentgrass to reduced root-zone temperatures at supraoptimal air temperature. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 127(5), 754-758,
Zhang Y., Yasutake D., Hidaka K., Kitano M., and Okayasu T., 2020. CFD analysis for evaluating and optimizing spatial distribution of CO2 concentration in a strawberry greenhouse under different CO2 enrichment methods. Comput. Electron. Agric., 179, 105811,
Zhang Y., Yasutake D., Hidaka K., Okayasu T., Kitano M., and Hirota T., 2022. Crop-localized CO2 enrichment improves the microclimate, photosynthetic distribution and energy utilization efficiency in a greenhouse. J. Clean. Prod., 371, 133465,
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top