Effect of water stress on yield stability, water productivity, and canopy temperature of rice genotypes
More details
Hide details
Department of Agronomy, Chalous Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalous, P.O. Box: 46615-397, Iran
Final revision date: 2022-06-12
Acceptance date: 2022-06-27
Publication date: 2022-09-02
Corresponding author
Morteza Sam Daliri   

Department of Agronomy, Chalous Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalous, P.O. Box: 46615-397, Iran
Int. Agrophys. 2022, 36(3): 235–243
  • Canopy temperature (CT) was a reliable predictor to identify drought-tolerant genotypes
  • Rice landraces obtained maximum water use efficiency (WUE)
  • With each degree increase in CT, the average yield decreased by 1942 kg/ha
  • WUE, CT, GMP, and STI were the best indices to evaluate drought tolerance
  • Landraces had higher yield potential than improved cultivars under water deficit conditions
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and water productivity of 15 rice genotypes under non-stress and drought-stress conditions in a warm-temperate climate. This study was laid out with a randomized complete block design at two research stations (Abbasabad and Katalom, Iran). Water deficit decreased the grain yield and increased the canopy temperature in all genotypes, but the response of water productivity to drought stress was not the same for the different genotypes. The maximum water productivity in non-stress and stress conditions (0.50 and 0.53 kg m–3, respectively) were found in landraces. The canopy temperature was a reliable indicator for identifying drought-tolerant genotypes of rice. With each degree increase in canopy temperature, the grain yield decreased by 1 942 kg ha–1. The biplot analysis demonstrated that landraces were the most suitable genotypes for cultivation under drought-stress and no-stress conditions. A principal component analysis based on stress tolerance indices showed that Shastak and Sahel were the most tolerant genotypes to drought stress. Overall, Shastak with a maximum grain yield (4 595 kg ha–1), the highest water productivity, and savings of irrigation water by as much as 54% under conditions of drought stress may be introduced as a superior genotype for cultivation under water scarcity conditions and used in future breeding programmes.
All authors declare no conflict of interest.
Ashoori N., Abdi M., Golzardi F., Ajalli J., and Ilkaee M.N., 2021. Forage potential of sorghum-clover intercropping systems in semi-arid conditions. Bragantia, 80, e1421,
Baghdadi A., Paknejad F., Golzardi F., Hashemi M., and Ilkaee M.N., 2021. Suitability and 'benefits from intercropped sorghum-amaranth under partial root‐zone irrigation. J. Sci. Food Agric., 101(14), 5918-5926,
Balazadeh M., Zamanian M., Golzardi F., and Mohammadi Torkashvand A., 2021. Effects of limited irrigation on forage yield, nutritive value and water use efficiency of Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum) compared to Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum). Commun. Soil Sci. Plant. Anal., 52(16), 1927-1942,
Dash P.K., Rai R., Rai V., and Pasupalak S., 2018. Drought induced signaling in rice: Delineating canonical and non-canonical pathways. Front. Chem., 6, 264,
FAOSTAT, 2020. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). FAOSTAT Statistical Database. Rome, Italy.
Fawibe O.O., Hiramatsu M., Taguchi Y., Wang J., and Isoda A., 2020. Grain yield, water-use efficiency, and physiological characteristics of rice cultivars under drip irrigation with plastic-film-mulch. J. Crop Improv., 34(3), 414-436,
Farhadi A., Paknejad F., Golzardi F., Ilkaee M.N., and Aghayari F., 2022. Effects of limited irrigation and nitrogen rate on the herbage yield, water productivity, and nutritive value of sorghum silage. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant. Anal., 53(5), 576-589,
Golzardi F., Baghdadi A., and Keshavarz Afshar R., 2017. Alternate furrow irrigation affects yield and water-use efficiency of maize under deficit irrigation. Crop Pasture Sci., 68(8), 726-734,
Gupta A., Rico-Medina A., Caño-Delgado A.I., 2020. The physiology of plant responses to drought. Sci., 368, 266-269.
Khatibi A., Omrani S., Omrani A., Shojaei S.H., Mousavi S.M.N., Illés Á., Bojtor C., and Nagy J., 2022. Response of maize hybrids in drought-stress using drought tolerance indices. Water, 14(7), 1012,
Khorsand A., Rezaverdinejad V., Asgarzadeh H., Majnooni-Heris A., Rahimi A., and Besharat S., 2020. Response of maize and black gram yield and water productivity to variation in canopy temperature and crop water stress index. Int. Agrophys., 34(3), 381-390,
Kim Y., Chung Y.S., Lee E., Tripathi P., Heo S., Kim K.H., 2020. Root response to drought stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Int. J. Mol. Sci., 21(4), 1513,
Krishnamurthy S.L., Gautam R.K., Sharma P.C., and Sharma D.K., 2016. Effect of different salt stresses on agro-morphological traits and utilisation of salt stress indices for reproductive stage salt tolerance in rice. Field Crops Res., 190, 26-33,
Mariey S. and Khedr R.A., 2017. Evaluation of some Egyptian barley cultivars under water stress conditions using drought tolerance indices and multivariate analysis. J. Sustain. Agric. Sci., 43(2), 105-114,
Melandri G., AbdElgawad H., Riewe D., Hageman J.A., Asard H., Beemster G.T.S., Kadam N., Jagadish K., Altmann T., Ruyter-Spira C., and Bouwmeester H., 2020. Biomarkers for grain yield stability in rice under drought stress. J. Exp. Bot., 71(2), 669-683,
Mishra S.S., Behera P.K., Kumar V., Lenka S.K., and Panda D., 2018. Physiological characterization and allelic diversity of selected drought tolerant traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces of Koraput, India. Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plants., 24(6), 1035-1046,
Monkham T., Jongdee B., Pantuwan G., Mitchell J.H., Sanitchon J., and Fukai S., 2018. On-farm multi-location evaluation of occurrence of drought types and rice genotypes selected from controlled- water on-station experiments in Northeast Thailand. Field Crops Res., 220, 27-36,
Naroui Rad M.R., and Bakhshi B., 2021. GGE biplot tool to identify melon fruit weight stability under different drought conditions. Int. J. Veg. Sci., 27(3), 220-230,
Panda D., Mishra S.S., and Behera P.K., 2021. Drought tolerance in rice: Focus on recent mechanisms and approaches. Rice Sci., 28(2), 119-132,
Pandey V. and Shukla A., 2015. Acclimation and tolerance strategies of rice under drought stress. Rice Sci., 22(4), 147-161.
Poli Y., Balakrishnan D., Desiraju S. Panigrahy M., Voleti S.R., Mangrauthia S.K., and Neelamraju S., 2018. Genotype × environment interactions of Nagina22 rice mutants for yield traits under low phosphorus, water limited and normal irrigated conditions. Sci. Rep., 8, 15530,
Pour-Aboughadareh A., Khalili M., Poczai P., and Olivoto T., 2022. Stability indices to deciphering the genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) effect: An applicable review for use in plant breeding programs. Plants, 11(3), 414,
Sabouri A., Dadras A.R., Azari M., Saberi Kouchesfahani A., Taslimi M., and Jalalifar R., 2022. Screening of rice drought‑tolerant lines by introducing a new composite selection index and competitive with multivariate methods. Sci. Rep., 12, 2163,
Samal R., Roy P.S., Sahoo A., Kar M.K., Patra B.C., Marndi B.C., and Gundimeda J.N.R., 2018. Morphological and molecular dissection of wild rices from eastern India suggests distinct speciation between O. rufipogon and O. nivara populations. Sci. Rep., 8 (1), 2773,
Sánchez-Martín J., Rispail N., Flores F., Emeran A.A., Sillero J.C., Rubiales D., and Prats E., 2017. Higher rust resistance and similar yield of oat landraces versus cultivars under high temperature and drought. Agron. Sustain. Dev., 37(1), 3.
Sharifi P. and Ebadi A.A., 2018. Relationships of rice yield and quality based on genotype by trait (GT) biplot. Agrar. Sci., 90(1), 343-356,
Teymoori M., Ardakani M.R., Shirani Rad A.H., Alavifazel M., and Nejatkhah Manavi P., 2020. Seed yield and physiological responses to deal with drought stress and late sowing date for promising lines of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Int. Agrophys., 34(3), 321-331,
Thiry A.A., Chavez-Dulanto P.N., Reynolds M.P., and Davies W.J., 2016. How can we improve crop genotypes to increase stress resilience and productivity in a future climate? A new crop screening method based on productivity and resistance to abiotic stress. J. Exp. Bot., 67(19), 5593-5603,
Tshikunde N.M., Odindo A., Shimelis H., and Mashilo J., 2018. Leaf gas exchange and water-use efficiency of dry-land wheat genotypes under water stressed and non-stressed conditions. Acta Agric. Scand. B Soil Plant Sci., 68(8), 738-748,
Yan C., Chen H., Fan T., Huang Y., Yu S., Chen S., and Hong X., 2012. Rice flag leaf physiology, organ and canopy temperature in response to water stress. Plant Prod. Sci., 15(2), 92-99,
Yang X., Wang B., Chen L., Li P., and Cao C., 2019. The different influences of drought stress at the flowering stage on rice physiological traits, grain yield, and quality. Sci. Rep., 9, 3742,
Zhang J., Zhang S., Cheng M., Jiang H., Zhang X., Peng C., Lu X., Zhang M., and Jin J., 2018. Effect of drought on agronomic traits of rice and wheat: A meta-analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 15(5), 839,
Zhu R., Wu F.Y., Zhou S., Hu T., Huang J., and Gao Y., 2020. Cumulative effects of drought-flood abrupt alternation on the photosynthetic characteristics of rice. Environ. Exp. Bot., 169, 103901,