RESEARCH PAPER
Effects of biochar on soil water and temperature, nutrients, and yield of maize/soybean and maize/peanut intercropping systems
Ce Luan 1,2
,
 
Wei He 2
,
 
Xu Su 1
,
 
,
 
,
 
 
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
College of Water Resource, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
2
College of Hydraulic Engineering, Liaoning Vocational College of Ecological Engineering, Shenyang 110866, China
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Yikui Bai   

College of Water Resource, Shenyang Agricultural University, China
Final revision date: 2021-11-13
Acceptance date: 2021-11-22
Publication date: 2021-12-30
 
Int. Agrophys. 2021, 35(4): 365–373
 
HIGHLIGHTS
  •  From the early growth stage to middle and late growth stages, the effect of biochar on soil mineral nitrogen content was transformed from adsorption to release.
  •  The soil mineral nitrogen content of soybean and peanut ridges was significantly higher than that of corn ridges.
  •  The total yield increased by 11.8%–13.8% relative to the treatment without biochar.
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of biochar to improve the soil environment of intercropping systems. There were two planting systems (maize/soybean, maize/peanut intercropping) coupled with three biochar application rates (0, 15, and 30 t ha–1). Changes in the soil water content, soil bulk density, temperature, soil nutrients and yield were recorded. Under the influence of rainfall, biochar significantly increased soil water storage at the 0-30 cm soil layer. The maximum increment of soil water storage was 15.5% with the maize/peanut intercropping at 15 t ha–1 treatment at the tassel stage. Both biochar treatments significantly increased the soil effective accumulated temperature at the seedling stage and jointing stage. The greatest increment in soil effective accumulated temperature was achieved using the maize/peanut intercropping at 15 t ha–1 treatment. The effects of biochar on soil effective accumulated temperature were weakened at the tasselling, grain filling and mature stages. After biochar application, the soil mineral nitrogen content was significantly reduced at the seeding stage, but significantly increased by 25.2-48.9% at the tasselling and grain filling stages. The soil ammonium and nitrate nitrogen content of the soybean and peanut ridges was significantly higher than those of the corn ridges. The total yield of maize/soybean increased by 12.8-13.7% and the total yield of maize/peanut intercropping increased by 15.9-18.0% relative to the treatment without biochar. Therefore, both 15 t ha–1 and 30 t ha–1 effectively regulated the soil water, nutrient and temperature at the jointing, tasselling and grain filling stages, which enhanced the positive effects of intercropping on crop yield. From an analysis of the yield results, it was found that biochar may be more significant in the maize/peanut intercropping system.
FUNDING
This work was supported by the Key R&D Programme of Liaoning under Grant 2018103007; the Liaoning Natural Science Fund under Grant 2019-ZD-0705 (2019-2021).
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors do not declare any conflict of interest
 
REFERENCES (33)
1.
Abel S., Peters A., Trinks S., Schonsky H., Facklam M., and Wessolek G., 2013. Impact of biochar and hydrochar addition on water retention and water repellency of sandy soil. Geoderma, 202, 183-191, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geod....
 
2.
Bruun E.W., Petersen C.T., Hansen E., Holm J.K., and Hauggaard‐Nielsen H., 2014. Biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil improves root growth and increases water retention. Soil Use Manage., 30(1), 109-118, https://doi.org/10.1111/sum.12....
 
3.
Chen Z., Cui H., Wu P., Zhao Y., and Sun Y., 2010. Study on the optimal intercropping width to control wind erosion in North China. Soil Till. Res., 110(2), 230-235, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stil....
 
4.
Dai W., Wang L., Ismail K., Wang X., and Li Z., 2019. Effects of straw mulching and biochar addition on soil temperature and maize yield (in Chinese). Chin. J. Ecol., 3, 719-725.
 
5.
Gajda A.M., Czyz E.A., and Dexter A.R., 2016. Effects of long-term use of different farming systems on some physical, chemical and microbiological parameters of soil quality. Int. Agrophys., 30(2), 165-172, https://doi.org/10.1515/intag-....
 
6.
Green D.S., Boots B., Carvalho J.D.S., and Starkey T., 2019. Cigarette butts have adverse effects on initial growth of perennial ryegrass (gramineae: Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (leguminosae: Trifolium repens L.). Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 182, 109418, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoe....
 
7.
Guerena D.T., Lehmann J., and Thies J.E., 2015. Partitioning the contributions of biochar properties to enhanced biological nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Biol. Fert. Soils, 51, 479-491, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374....
 
8.
Hussain S., Liu T., Iqbal N., Brestic M., Pang T., Mumtaz M., and Yang W., 2020. Effects of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, sucrose and monosaccharide carbohydrates on soybean physical stem strength and yield in intercropping. Photoch. Photobio. Sci., 19(4), 462-472, https://doi.org/10.1039/C9PP00....
 
9.
Lehmann J., Rillig M.C., Thies J., Masiello C.A., Hockaday W.C., and Crowley D., 2011. Biochar effects on soil biota. A review. Soil Biol. Biochem., 43(9), 1812-1836, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soil....
 
10.
Liao H., Li Y., and Yao H., 2019. Biochar amendment stimulates utilization of plant-derived carbon by soil bacteria in an intercropping system. Front. Microbiol., 10, 1361, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.....
 
11.
Li L., Sun J., Zhang F., Guo T., Bao X., Smith F.A., and Smith S.E., 2006. Root distribution and interactions between intercropped species. Oecologia, 147(2), 280-290, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442....
 
12.
Liu X., Zhang A., Ji, C., Joseph S., Bian R., Li L., and Paz-Ferreiro J., 2013. Biochar's effect on crop productivity and the dependence on experimental conditions-a meta-analysis of literature data. Plant Soil, 373(1), 583-594, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104....
 
13.
Liu Y., Wang J.G., Guo F., Tang C.H., Yang S., Geng Y., Meng J.J., Li X.G., Zhang J.L., and Wan S.B., 2020. Effects of corn and peanut intercropping on dry matter accumulation and nitrogen absorption and utilization of crops (in Chinese). Chinese Journal of Oil Crops, 42(06), 994-1001.
 
14.
Major J., Rondon M., Molina D., Riha S.J., and Lehmann J., 2010. Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant Soil, 333(1), 117-128, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104....
 
15.
Miao Y., Stewart B., and Zhang F., 2011. Long-term experiments for sustainable nutrient management in China. Agron. Sustain. Dev., 31(2), 397-414, https://doi.org/10.1051/agro/2....
 
16.
Milly.P.C.D., 1994. Climate, soil water storage, and the average annual water balance. Water Resour. Res., 30(7), 2143-2156, https://doi.org/10.1029/94WR00....
 
17.
Oswald A., Ransom J.K., Kroschel J., and Sauerborn J., 2002. Intercropping controls Striga in maize based farming systems. Crop Prot., 21(5), 367-374, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-....
 
18.
Ouyang L., Wang F., Tang J., Yu L., and Zhang R., 2013. Effects of biochar amendment on soil aggregates and hydraulic properties. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nut., 13(4), 991-1002, https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-....
 
19.
Paz-Ferreiro J., Fu S., Méndez A., and Gascó G., 2014. Interactive effects of biochar and the earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on plant productivity and soil enzyme activities. J. Soil Sediments, 14(3), 483-494, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368....
 
20.
Pirhofer-Walzl K., Rasmussen., J., Høgh-Jensen H., Eriksen., J., Søegaard., K., and Rasmussen J., 2012. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland. Plant Soil, 350(1), 71-84, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104....
 
21.
Rondon M.A., Lehmann J., and Ramirez J., 2007. Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases with bio-char additions. Biol. Fert. Soils, 43, 699-708, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374....
 
22.
Sekiya N., Araki H., and Yano K., 2011. Applying hydraulic lift in an agroecosystem: forage plants with shoots removed supply water to neighboring vegetable crops. Plant Soil, 341(1), 39-50, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104....
 
23.
Sheats J., 2014. Performance quantification of extensive green roof substrate blend: Expanded shale and biochar. [Masters Thesis], James Madison University.
 
24.
Sohi S. P., Krull E., Lopez-Capel E., and Bol R., 2010. A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. Adv. Agron., 105, 47-82, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-....
 
25.
Van Z., Rose T., and Herridge D., 2015. Enhanced biological N2 fixation and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in an acid soil following biochar addition: dissection of causal mechanisms. Plant Soil, 395, 7-20, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104....
 
26.
Verheijen F.G., Zhuravel A., Silva F.C., Amaro A., Ben-Hur M., and Keizer J.J., 2019. The influence of biochar particle size and concentration on bulk density and maximum water holding capacity of sandy vs sandy loam soil in a column experiment. Geoderma, 347, 194-202, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geod....
 
27.
Wu Q., Chen T., Chi D., Xia G., Sun Y., and Song Y., 2019. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency with lower nitrogen application frequencies using zeolite in rice paddy fields. Int. Agrophys., 33(2), 263-269, https://doi.org/10.31545/intag....
 
28.
Wu Q., Chi D., Xia G., Chen T., Sun Y., and Song Y., 2019. Effects of zeolite on drought resistance and water-nitrogen use efficiency in paddy rice. J. Irrig. Drain. E., 145(11), 04019024, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)....
 
29.
Wu Q., Wang Y., Chen T., Zheng J., Sun Y., and Chi D., 2020. Soil nitrogen regulation using clinoptilolite for grain filling and grain quality improvements in rice. Soil Till. Res., 199, 104547, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stil....
 
30.
Xia G., Wang Y., Hu J., Wang S., Zhang Y., Wu Q., and Chi D., 2021. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water and nitrogen use, yield, and kernel quality of peanut under nitrogen-supplied conditions. Agric. Water Manag., 243, 106518, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwa....
 
31.
Xu Y., Sun L., Gao Z., Zhai H., and Du Y., 2020. Research on the correlation between overall respiration changes of grapevine buds and roots and effective accumulated air and soil temperatures (in Chinese). Acta Plant Physiol., 56(04), 799-806.
 
32.
Zhang J., Qun C.H.E.N., and Changfu Y.O.U., 2016. Biochar effect on water evaporation and hydraulic conductivity in sandy soil. Pedosphere, 26(2), 265-272, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-....
 
33.
Zhang X.N., Chen P., Pang T., Du Q., Fu Z.D., Zhou Y., Ren J.Y., Yang W.Y., and Yong T.W., 2017. The effects of dry matter accumulation, distribution and yield in the maize/soybean and maize/peanut intercropping system (in Chinese). J. Sichuan Agric. Univ., 35(4), 484-490.
 
eISSN:2300-8725
ISSN:0236-8722