Effects of wheat straw returning and potassium application rates on the physicochemical properties and lodging resistance of different stem internodes in direct-seeded rice
Bo Li 1,2
Hao Fu 2
Jun Ma 1,2
More details
Hide details
State Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Exploration and Utilization in Southwest China, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
Crop Ecophysiology and Cultivation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, 611130, China
Institute of Plateau Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Chengdu, 610072, China
Yongjian Sun   

Institute of Plateau Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Chengdu, China
Final revision date: 2022-09-23
Acceptance date: 2022-10-10
Publication date: 2022-11-16
Int. Agrophys. 2022, 36(4): 309–321
  • Straw returning, potassium fertilizer quantity, and their interaction effects affected rice grain yields and lodging index
  • Insufficient potassium application reduced effective panicle number, grain number per panicle, and total spikelet number
  • Recommended potassium fertilizer rates in the field and after straw returning are 187.5 and 125 kg ha-1, respectively
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the physicochemical properties and lodging index of different stem internodes and the yield of direct-seeded rice. Two treatments of wheat straw returning (returning and non-returning) and five potassium application rates of 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, and 250 kg ha-1 were applied. Wheat straw returning combined with a potassium application rate of 125 kg ha-1 significantly promoted potassium accumulation, increased total soluble sugar and lignin contents, improved breaking moment, reduced the flattening rate and lodging resistance index of different internode stems, and increased the yield. Correlation analysis revealed that compared with those of the 4th and 5th internodes, potassium content and accumulation and total soluble sugar and lignin contents of the 3rd internode were significantly positively correlated with yield (r = 0.85**-0.93**) and negatively correlated with the stem flat rate and lodging index (r = -0.67*– -0.79**), which improved lodging resistance in collaboration with the 4th and 5th internodes (r = 0.82**-0.95**). Increasing potassium accumulation, total soluble sugar and lignin content, and reducing stem flatness of the 3rd stem internodes are important factors for improving lodging resistance of direct-seeded rice and may provide a basis for improving the 4th and 5th stem internodes.
This work was supported by the Research Program Foundation of Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, China, the Cultivation of Green and Efficient Super Rice Varieties (2022ZDZX0012, 2022-2025); the Project Foundation of the State Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Exploration and Utilization in Southwest China (Grant No. SKL-ZY202228, 2022-2024); the Rice Breeding Project Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Science and Technology Department (Grant No. 2021YFYZ0005, 2021-2025).
The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
Bahmaniar M., Ranjbar G., and Ahmadian S., 2007. Effects of N and K applications on agronomic characteristics of two Iranian and landrace rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci., 10(6), 880-860.
Chaudhary A., Venkatramanan V., Kumar Mishra A., and Sharma S., 2022. Agronomic and environmental determinants of direct seeded rice in South Asia. Circular Economy Sustainab., 1-23.
Duan C., Wang B., Wang P., Wang D., and Cai S., 2004. Relationship between the minute structure and the lodging resistance of rice stems. Colloids Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 35(3-4), 155-158.
Dong L., Wang H., Lu C., Jin M., Zhu X., Shen Y., and Shen M., 2019. Effects of straw returning amount and type on soil nitrogen and nitrogen components (in Chinese). J. App. Ecol., 30(04), 1143-1150.
Fan Y., Yang G., Chen J., Jiang F., Muslim Q., Chen Y., and Hu Y., 2017. Effects of combined application of silicon and potassium fertilizers on physicochemical properties and lodging resistance of rice stems (in Chinese). Acta Botanica Sinica, 37(04), 751-757.
Guo R., Zhu H., Chow S., Ibrahim J., 2012. Bayesian lasso for semiparametric structural equation models. Biometrics, 68(2), 567-577.
Guo Z., Liu X., Zhang B., Yuan X., Xing Y., Liu H., Luo L., Chen G., and Xiong L., 2021. Genetic analyses of lodging resistance and yield provide insights into post-green-revolution breeding in rice. Plant Biotechnol. J., 19(4), 814-829.
He Q., Zhang S., Li Y., Qiao J., Sun Y., and Ma J., 2017. Effects of combined application of silicon and potassium on stem traits and lodging resistance of rice (in Chinese). Hybrid Rice, 32(01), 66-73.
Ishimaru K,. Togawa E., Ookawa T., Kashiwagi T., Madoka Y., and Hirotsu N., 2008. New target for rice lodging resistance and its effect in a typhoon. Planta, 227(3), 601-609.
Jiang M., Wang H., He Y., Wang C., Li N., Yang Z., Sun Y., and Ma J., 2020. Effect of nitrogen management on lodging resistance of direct seeding hybrid rice (in Chinese). J. Nuclear Agric., 34(01),157-168.
Katsuyuki I., Yutaka O., and Takatoshi T., 1997. Photoperiod sensitivity gene of Se-1 locus found in photoperiod insensitive rice cultivars of the northern limit region of rice cultivation. Japanese J. Breeding, 47(2), 145-152.
Kashiwagi T., and Ishimaru K., 2004. Identification and functional analysis of a locus for improvement of lodging resistance in rice. Plant Physiol., 134(2), 676-83.
Lei X., Liu L., Liu B., Huang G., Ma R., and Ren W., 2014. Physicochemical properties and lodging resistance of stems of Indica hybrid rice F you 498 grown mechanically (in Chinese). Chinese Rice Science, 28(06), 612-620.
Li H., 2000. Principles and techniques of plant physiological and biochemical experiments. Beijing, Higher Education Press.
Li H., Zhang X., Li W., Xu Z., and Xu H., 2009. Comparison of lodging resistance among japonica rice varieties with different panicle types (in Chinese). Chinese Rice Science, 23(02), 191-196.
Li Y., Zheng J., Wu Q., Lin W., Gong X., Chen Y., Chen T., Siddique K., and Chi D., 2021. Zeolite alleviates potassium deficiency and improves lodging-related stem morphological characteristics and grain yield in rice. Crop Pasture Sci., 72, 407-415.
Liu C., Zheng S., Gui J., Fu C., Yu H., Song D., Shen J., Qin P., Liu X., Han B., Yang Y., and Li L., 2018. Shortened basal internodes encodes a gibberellin 2-Oxidase and contributes to lodging resistance in rice. Molecular Plant, 11(2), 288-299.
Livote E. and Wyka K., 2008. Introduction to structural equation modeling using SPSS and AMOS. Structural Equation Modeling, 16(3), 556-560.
Liu L., Wang K., Ge L., Fan M., Zhang Z., Wang Z., and Yang J., 2012. The relationship between basal internode traits and lodging in upland rice and its physiological mechanism (in Chinese). Plant Biotechnol. J., 38(05), 848-856.
Liu S., Huang Y., Xu H., Zhao M., Xu Q., and Li F., 2018. Genetic enhancement of lodging resistance in rice due to the key cell wall polymer lignin, which affects stem characteristics. Breeding Sci., 68, 508-515.
Luo M., Tian C., Li X., and Lin J., 2007. Review on the relationship between morphological and structural characteristics, chemical components and lodging resistance of rice stems (in Chinese). Acta Botanica Sinica, 11, 2346-2353.
Miao Z., Yu S., Lu B., Ding J., and Yu Z., 2013. Study on the relationship between water demand, photosynthesis and yield of rice based on structural equation model (in Chinese). J. Agric. Eng., 29(06), 91-98.
Sun Y., Chen Y., Sun Y., Xu H., Xu Y., Liu S., and Ma J., 2012. Relationship between lodging resistance and population quality of triangle intensified hybrid rice under different nitrogen application rates and planting densities (in Chinese). Chinese Rice Science, 26(02), 189-196.
Teng X., Wang J., Li P., Lin X., and Sun Q., 2021. Research progress on influencing factors and evaluation methods of rice lodging resistance (in Chinese). Fujian Agric. J., 36(10), 1245-1254.
Torro I., Breto P., and Garcia-Yzaguirre A., 2011. Short communication. Assessing lodging resistance in rice: A comparison of two indirect testing methods. Spanish J. Agric. Res., 9(4), 1245-1248.
Wang Y., Adnan A., Wang X., Shi Y., Yang S., Ding Q., and Sun G., 2020. Nutrient recycling, wheat straw decomposition, and the potential effect of straw shear strength on soil mechanical properties. Agronomy, 10(2), 314.
Weng F., Zhang W., Wu X., Xu X., Ding Y., Li G., Liu Z., and Wang S., 2017. Impact of low-temperature, overcast and rainy weather during the reproductive growth stage on lodging resistance of rice. Scientific Reports, 7, 46596.
Wu H., Liu D., Zhong M., and Wang Y., 2019. Effects of water management and potassium fertilizer application on yield and lodging resistance of rice (in Chinese). Crop Magazine, 1, 127-133.
Xu J., Meng T., Jing P., Zhang H., Li J., Dai Q., Wei H., and Guo B., 2015. Effects of mechanical planting density on lodging resistance and yield of different types of rice (in Chinese). Plant Biotechnol. J., 41(11), 1767-1776.
Yan C., Yan S., Jia T., Dong S., Ma C., and Gong Z., 2019. Decomposition characteristics of rice straw returned to the soil in northeast China. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 114, 211-224.
Yan F., Sun Y., Xu H., Yin Y., Wang H., Wang C., Guo C., Yang Z., Sun Y., and Ma J., 2018. Effects of wheat straw mulch application and nitrogen management on rice root growth, dry matter accumulation and rice quality in soils of different fertility. Paddy Water Environ., 16, 507-518.
Yang B., Yang W., Ren W., Lu T., Xiao Q., Yao X., and Gong Y., 2009. Effect of potassium fertilizer on population quality and yield of rice under different planting patterns (in Chinese). Crop Magazine, 4, 68-71.
Yang C., Yang L., Yan T., and Ou-Yang Z., 2004. Effects of different nutrient and water management modes on lodging resistance of rice (in Chinese). J. Appl. Ecol., 15(04), 646-650.
Yang Y., Zhu Z., Chen T., Chen T., Zhao Q., Zhou L., Yao S., and Wang C., 2011. Changes of biochemical components in rice stems at different growth stages and their relationship with lodging resistance (in Chinese). J. Plant Physiol., 47(12), 1181-1187.
Yang S., Xie L., Zheng S., Li J., and Yuan J., 2009. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer level and planting density on physicochemical properties and lodging resistance of hybrid rice stems (in Chinese). J. Crops, 35(01), 93-103.
Yang W., Ma C., Mei Y., Wang X., and Lv W., 2010. A preliminary study on the effect of straw returning after wheat stubble on the yield of direct seeding rice (in Chinese). Shanghai Agric. Sci. Technol., 4, 44-46.
Zhan A., Zou C., Ye Y., Liu Z., Cui Z., and Chen X., 2016. Estimating on-farm wheat yield response to potassium and potassium uptake requirement in China. Field Crops Res., 191, 13-19,
Zhan P., Chen X., Wei T., Yang Z, Jia Z., Yang Z., Han Q., and Ren X., 2016. Effects of straw incorporation on the soil nutrient contents, enzyme activities, and crop yield in a semi-arid region of China. Soil Till. Res., 160, 65-72.
Zhang F., Jin Z., Ma G., Shang W., Liu H., Xu M., and Liu Y., 2010. Relationship between lodging resistance and chemical contents in culms and sheaths of japonica rice during grain filling. Rice Science, 17(04), 311-318.
Zhang J., Li G., Huang Q., Liu Z., Ding C., Tang S., Chen L., Wang S., Ding Y., and Zhang W., 2017. Effects of culm carbohydrate partitioning on basal stem strength in a high-yielding rice population. Crop J., 5(6), 478-487.
Zhang Q., Xiang K., Sun Y., Wu Y., Guo C., Tang Y., Liu F., and Ma J., 2020. Effects of sowing rate and transplanting equipment on rice yield and population quality under different seedling raising methods (in Chinese). J. Nuclear Agric., 34(11), 2595-2606.
Zhang W., Wu L., Ding Y., Yao X., Wu X., Weng F., Li G., Liu Z., Tang S., Ding C., and Wang S., 2017. Nitrogen fertilizer application affects lodging resistance by altering secondary cell wall synthesis in japonica rice (Oryza sativa). J. Plant Res., 130, 859-871.
Zhang X., Zhang P., Wang X., Chen R., Wang W., Wan S., Song W., Zhang G., Li Y., and Qian Y., 2021. Effect of combined application of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer on lodging resistance of rice in cold region under straw returning (in Chinese). Henan Agric. Sci., 50(03), 17-24.
Zhao F., Cheng J., Zhang G., Xu D., Wu J., Wu J., Yang Z., and Ma H., 2011. Effects of nitrogen management and straw returning on nitrogen utilization and yield of direct seeding rice (in Chinese). Hubei Agricultural Sciences, 50(18), 3701-3704.
Zhao Q., Xin C., Liu Q., Jiang X., Yang J., and Ma H., 2022. Effects of continuous straw return and fertilization on rice lodging resistance. Chilean J. Agric. Res., 82(1), 146-156.
Zhou D., Chen J., She J., Tong J., and Chen Y., 2012. Temporal dynamics of shearing force of rice stem. Biomass Bioenergy, 47, 109-114.
Zhou F., Huang J., Liu W., Deng D., and Jia Z., 2019. Multiscale simulation of elastic modulus of rice stem. Biosystems Eng., 187, 96-113.