Influence of physical properties of sugar beet seeds on the work quality of the seeding mechanism
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Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
Department of Agricultural Machinery and Services, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Na Sádkách 1780, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Faculty of Production and Power Engineering, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Balicka 116B, 30‑149 Krakow, Poland
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
Faculty of Agrobioengineering and Animal Husbandry, University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Siedlce, ul. Prusa 14, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
Department of Agriculture, Vocational State School of Ignacy Mościcki in Ciechanów, ul. Narutowicza 9, 06-400 Ciechanów, Poland
Marek Gancarz   

Faculty of Production and Power Engineering, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland
Final revision date: 2023-03-09
Acceptance date: 2023-03-20
Publication date: 2023-05-12
Int. Agrophys. 2023, 37(2): 171–178
  • The greatest damage to seeds was obtained at working speeds of 1.0 -1.5 m s–1.
  • The strength of seeds decreases with the increase in the humidity of the capsule.
  • A sugar beet planter with an air system caused more damage of seeds.
Biological, physical and technological properties of the sugar beet seed, tillage quality and quality of the seed placement to the soil have a predominant effect on the value and evenness of the sugar beet field emergence. During planting, the distance between two successive seeds in the row depends upon the technical parameters of the planter: the type of planting unit mounted on the frame, the forward speed, and the design and the type of planting mechanism drive. The measurements were realized in the laboratory and in field conditions according to the ISO 7256/1 Standard. The field experiments were conducted on loamy-sandy loamy soil where 30% of the soil aggregates were less than 0.01 mm and the soil moisture level was 19.4%. The experiments were conducted using two types of sugar beet cultivars – Roxana (calibration 3.5-4.75 mm) and Flair (calibration 3.5-4.5 mm). The paper is focused on making a comparison between the planting quality of two types of sugar beet planters equipped with different planting mechanisms. The first machine was a planter with an internal mechanism of gathering openings and the second machine was based on the vacuum principle. A sugar beet planter equipped with an air under vacuum pressure system caused more damage to the seeds during higher forward working speeds (5.4%). In the case of the planting mechanical system, the highest degree of seed damage was caused by forward working speeds of 1.0-1.5 m s–1.
This work was supported by the Operational Programme Integrated Infrastructure within the project: Sustainable smart farming systems taking into account the future challenges of 313011W112, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund. This scientific article is related to the project: Implementation of modern educational approaches and tools to enhance the creativity and practical skills of graduates with a special focus on agricultural and forestry science using, KEGA 016SPU-4/2021.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
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