Solutions for improvement of saccharification and fermentation of high gravity rye mashes
More details
Hide details
Department of Spirit and Yeast Technology, Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Łódź University of Technology, Wólczańska 171/173, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
Publish date: 2019-02-06
Acceptance date: 2018-10-18
Int. Agrophys. 2019, 33(1): 1–10
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound pretreatment, pullulanase digestion and hop α-acids preparation activity on the efficiency of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of high gravity mashes prepared from rye starch. As a result of the ultrasonic pretreatment alone, or such treatment combined with pullulanase digestion, a decrease in viscosity of 60-69 and 85%, respectively, was observed. Also, the higher concentrations of reducing sugars were determined in these mashes (p<0.05). The pretreatment of rye starch with ultrasound for 10 min resulted in a higher (by over 21%) fermentation efficiency as compared to the control mash (p < 0.05). Pullulanase digestion preceded by the use of ultrasound pretreatment and the antimicrobial action of hop α-acid preparation resulted in a further increase in fermentation efficiency (by ca. 30%), in comparison to the control sample (p < 0.05).
Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska   
Department of Spirit and Yeast Technology, Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Łódź University of Technology, Wólczańska 171/173, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
1. AOAC, 2006. Official Method 932.14. Solids in Syrups. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th Ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
2. Balcerek M. and Pielech-Przybylska K., 2009. Effect of supportive enzymes on chemical composition and viscosity of rye mashes obtained by the pressureless liberation of starch method and efficiency of their fermentation. European Food Res. Technol., 229, 141-151.
3. Balcerek M. and Pielech-Przybylska K., 2012. Effect of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions of native triticale starch on the dynamics and efficiency of process and composition of the distillates obtained. J. Chemical Technol. Biotechnol., 8, 615-622.
4. Broda M. and Leja K., 2010. The microbiological situation of distilleries in Poland. Polish J. Environ. Studies, 19, 901-906.
5. BS EN ISO 10520:1998. Native starch. Determination of starch content. Ewers polarimetric method.
6. Căpriţă R., Căpriţă A., and Julean C., 2010. Biochemical aspects of non-starch polysaccharides. Animal Sci. Biotechnol., 43, 366-375.
7. Ebringerová A. and Hromádková Z., 2002. Effect of ultrasound on the extractibility of corn bran hemicelluloses. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 9, 225-229.
8. Hii S.L., Tan J.S., Ling T.C., and Ariff A.B., 2012. Pullulanase: role in starch hydrolysis and potential industrial applications. Enzyme Research, doi:10.1155/2012/921362.
9. Huang Q., Li L., and Fu X., 2007. Ultrasound effects on the structure and chemical reactivity of corn starch granules. Starch, 59, 371-378.
10. Iida Y., Tuziuti T., Yasui K., Towata A., and Kozuka T., 2008. Control of viscosity in starch and polysaccharide solutions with ultrasound after gelatinization. Innovative Food Sci. Emerging Technol., 9, 140-146.
11. ISO 21527-1:2008. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds. Part 1: Colony count technique in products with water activity greater than 0.95.
12. ISO 4833:2004. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Horizontal method for the enumeration of microorganisms. Colony-count technique at 30 degrees C.
13. ISO 6887-1:1999. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Preparation of test samples, initial suspension and decimal dilutions for microbiological examination.
14. Ivetić D.Z., Omorjan R.P., Tatjana R., Dord T.R., and Antov M.G., 2017. The impact of ultrasound pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose from sugar beet shreds: modeling of the experimental results. Environ. Progress Sustainable Energy, 361164-1172.
15. Jambrak A.R., Herceg Z., Šubarić D., Babić J., Brnčić M., Brnčić S.R., Bosiljkov T., Čvek D., Tripalo B., and Gelo J., 2010. Ultrasound effect on physical properties of corn starch. Carbohydrate Polymers, 79, 91-100.
16. Kentish S. and Feng H., 2014. Applications of power ultrasound in food processing. Annual Review of Food Sci. Technol., 5, 263-284.
17. Kłosowski G., Mikulski D., Czupryński B., and Kotarska K., 2010. Characterisation of fermentation of high-gravity maize mashes with the application of pullulanase, proteolytic enzymes and enzymes degrading non-starch polysaccharides. J. Biosci. Bioengineering, 109, 466-471.
18. Li L., Ma S., Fan L., Zhang C., Pu X., Zheng X., and Wang X., 2016. The influence of ultrasonic modification on arabinoxylans properties obtained from wheat bran. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 51, 2338-2344.
19. Li Q., Ma Y., Mao C., and Wu C., 2009. Grafting modification and structural degradation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under the effect of ultrasonics sonochemistry. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 16, 752-757.
20. Manchun S., Nunthanid J., Limmatvapirat S., and Sriamornsak P., 2012. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on physical properties of tapioca starch. Advanced Materials Res., 506, 294-297.
21. Mason T.J., Paniwnyk L., and Lorimer J.P. 1996. The uses of ultrasound in food technology. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 3, S253-S260.
22. Miller G.L., 1959. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry, 31, 426-428.
23. Nikolić S., Mojović L., Rakin M., Pejin D., and Pejin J., 2010. Ultrasound-assisted production of bioethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corn meal. Food Chemistry, 122, 216-222.
24. Pejin D.J., Mojović L.V., Pejin J.D., Grujić O.S., Markov S.L., Nikolić S.B., and Marković M.N., 2012. Increase in bioethanol production yield from triticale by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with application of ultrasound. J. Chemical Technol. Biotechnol., 87, 170-176.
25. Pielech-Przybylska K., Balcerek M., Nowak A., Wojtczak M., Czyżowska A., Dziekońska-Kubczak U., and Patelski P., 2017. The effect of different starch liberation and saccharification methods on the microbial contaminations of distillery mashes, fermentation efficiency, and spirits quality. Molecules, 22, 1647, doi:10.3390/molecules22101647.
26. Pietrzak W. and Kawa-Rygielska J., 2014. Ethanol fermentation of waste bread using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme: Effect of raw material pretreatment. Fuel, 134, 250-256.
27. Roy I. and Gupta M.N., 2004. Hydrolysis of starch by a mixture of glucoamylase and pullulanase entrapped individually in calcium alginate beads. Enzyme and Microbial Technol., 34, 26-32.
28. Rückle L. and Senn T., 2006. Hop acids as natural antibacterials in ethanol fermentation. Int. Sugar J., 108, 139-147.
29. Sapińska E., Balcerek M., and Pielech-Przybylska K., 2013. Alcoholic fermentation of high-gravity corn mashes with the addition of supportive enzymes. J. Chemical Technol.Biotechnol., 88, 2152-2158.
30. Scheffler A. and Bamforth C.W., 2005. Exogenous β-glucanases and pentosanases and their impact on mashing. Enzyme Microbial Technol., 36, 813-817.
31. Schweizer T.F. and Würsch P., 1979. Analysis of dietary fibre. J. Sci. Food Agric., 30, 613-619.
32. Srichuwong S., Fujiwara M., Wang X., Seyama T., Shiroma R., Arakane M., Mukojima N., and Tokuyasu K., 2009. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of very high gravity (VHG) potato mash for the production of ethanol. Biomass and Bioenergy, 33, 890-898.
33. Sun J.X., Sun R.C., Sun X.F., and Su Y.Q., 2004. Fractional and physico-chemical characterization of hemicelluloses from ultrasonic irradiated sugarcane bagasse. Carbohydrate Res., 339, 291-300.
34. Szymanowska D. and Grajek W., 2009. Fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of native corn starch. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria, 8, 5-16.
35. Wang J.M. and Zhang G.P., 2010. β-glucans and arabinoxylans. In: Genetics and Improvement of Barley Malt Quality (Eds Zhang, Guoping, Li, Chengdao). Springer, New York, ISBN 978-3-642-01279-2.
36. Wang S., Thomas K.C., Sosulski K., Ingledew W.M., and Sosulski F.W., 1999. Grain pearling and very high gravity (VHG) fermentation technologies for fuel alcohol production from rye and triticale. Process Biochemistry, 34, 421-428.