Classification of commonly used feed ingredients based on flow properties
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Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul 34320, Turkey
Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara 06110, Turkey
Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, İstiklal Campus, Burdur 15030, Turkey
Department of Plant and Animal Production, Vocational School of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, İstiklal Campus, Burdur 15030, Turkey
Research and Application Centre for Agriculture, Livestock and Food, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, İstiklal Campus, Burdur 15030, Turkey
Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Selçuk University, Konya 42003, Turkey
Final revision date: 2022-03-31
Acceptance date: 2022-04-19
Publication date: 2022-05-23
Corresponding author
Ahmet Yavuz Pekel   

Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa Veterinerlik Mesl, 34320, istanbul, Turkey
Int. Agrophys. 2022, 36(2): 123–130
  • Crude protein and ether extract contents of feedstuffs were negatively and positively correlated with the angle of repose, respectively.
  • There is a wide variation in the angle of repose value among different ingredients tested
  • Oilseed meals were classified as ‘easy flow’ whereas, most by-products and cereal grains belonged to ‘moderate flow’ and ‘difficult flow’ classes, respectively.
The objective of this report was to classify ingredients based on their flowability. Twenty-six different feed ingredients (52 samples) were used including cereal grains, cereal by-products, oilseeds, oilseed meals, and animal-origin products. As an indication of flowability, the angle of repose was determined using a funnel test. In general, high protein oilseed meals had the lowest angle of repose, and therefore they had the highest flowability with the exception of cottonseed meal. Corn gluten feed and wheat middlings had the highest angle of repose values (39 and 34°, respectively), and therefore they had the lowest flowability. Ingredients with a range of angle of repose values between 22 and 25°, between 27 and 30°, and more than 30°, were categorized as having an easy flow, a moderate flow, and cohesive, respectively. The greater the protein content, the smaller the compressibility value (r = –0.38) and the lower the angle of repose (r = –0.42). An increase in the ether extract content of the ingredients resulted in a subsequent increase in angle of repose (r = 0.31) and therefore a decrease in flowability (p<0.05). The angle of repose was positively correlated with compressibility and the Hausner ratio. In conclusion, oilseed meals were classified as “easy flow”, most by-products as “moderate flow”, and cereal grains as “cohesive”.
This work was funded by Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa. Project number: TSA-2021-35853. The authors would like to acknowledge the Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa for the endowment.
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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