Standardisation of eddy-covariance flux measurements of methane and nitrous oxide
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Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, UK
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 68, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101, Helsinki, Finland
R&D, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, Nebraska, NE 68504, USA
Bio-Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, NE 68508, USA
Climate Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA
Research Centre of Excellence Plants and Ecosystems (PLECO), University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
TERRA Teaching and Research Centre, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, 33 University of Liege, B-5030, Gembloux, Belgium
Zentrum für Agrarmeteorologische Forschung Braunschweig (ZAMF), Deutscher Wetterdienst, Bundesallee 50, 38116, Braunschweig, Germany
Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, P-O. Box 460, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 22362 Lund, Sweden
Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68508, USA
Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich, Universitaetsstrasse 2, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
Mazingira Centre, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 30709, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
Aerodyne Research, Inc., 45 Manning Road, Billerica, MA, USA 01821-3976
Department of Innovation in Biological Agro-food and Forest Systems, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-116 90183, Umeå, Sweden
Publication date: 2018-11-23
Int. Agrophys. 2018, 32(4): 517-549
Commercially available fast-response analysers for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have recently become more sensitive, more robust and easier to operate. This has made their application for long-term flux measurements with the eddycovariance method more feasible. Unlike for carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O), there have so far been no guidelines on
how to optimise and standardise the measurements. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of the various steps of the measurements and discusses aspects such as instrument selection, setup and maintenance, data processing as well as the additional measurements needed to aid interpretation and gap-filling. It presents the methodological protocol for eddy covariance measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes as agreed for the ecosystem station network of the pan-European Research Infrastructure Integrated Carbon Observation System and provides a first international standard that is suggested to be adopted more widely. Fluxes can be episodic and the processes controlling the fluxes are complex, preventing simple mechanistic gap-filling strategies. Fluxes are often near or below the detection limit, requiring additional care during data processing. The protocol sets out the best practice for these conditions to avoid biasing the results and long-term budgets. It summarises the current approach to gap-filling.
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