RESEARCH PAPER
Tritordeum – the content of basic nutrients in grain and the morphological and anatomical features of kernels
 
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Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Bioresource Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, pl. Łódzki 3, 10-724 Olsztyn, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Marian Wiwart   

Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Bioresource Engineering, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Final revision date: 2021-11-22
Acceptance date: 2021-12-06
Publication date: 2021-12-21
 
Int. Agrophys. 2021, 35(4): 343–355
 
HIGHLIGHTS
  • The tritordeum lines differed significantly in the examined phenotypic traits
  • The SKCS results indicated great differences between tritordeum and T. durum
  • Tritordeum grain was characterized by high variation in all shape descriptors
  • Wider and more spherical kernels were less abundant in protein
  • Relative crease depth was 60% larger in tritordeum than in durum wheat
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The nutrient content and the morphological and anatomical features of kernels were compared for 11 breeding lines of tritordeum and three Triticum durum cultivars. The kernel shape descriptors were examined using digital image analysis, and the contents of four basic nutrients were determined. Tritordeum grain had a significantly higher content of protein, fat, ash and fibre than durum wheat grain. In turn, the values of one kernel weight, kernel thickness and hardness were significantly lower in tritordeum. Tritordeum kernels are elongated, relatively small, with a deep crease and a small cross-sectional area. All lines differed considerably with regard to the examined phenotypic attributes. Tritordeum lines and the reference cultivars were most effectively distinguished based on fibre content, spike length, spikelet number per spike, and kernel number and weight per spike. One kernel weight, whole kernel area, crease depth, and the distance from the bottom of the crease to the kernel edge were the least distinguishing traits. The results indicate that tritordeum grain can accumulate more than 19% protein and 43% more fibre than durum wheat in Central Europe. The examined tritordeum lines are highly promising despite the fact that their yield potential is twice lower compared to modern T. durum cultivars.
 
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