Effect of the roasting level on the content of bioactive and aromatic compounds in Arabica coffee beans
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Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, National Research Institute, Falenty, Al. Hrabska 3, 05-090 Raszyn, Poland
Department of Dairy and Process Engineering, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
Department of Food Biochemistry and Analysis, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
Department of Petroleum Engineering, College of Engineering, Knowledge University, 44001 Erbil, Iraq
Institute of the Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan
Pomology, Nursery and Enology Department, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 28, 20-400 Lublin, Poland
Faculty of Production and Power Engineering, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Balicka 116B, 30-149 Kraków, Poland
Final revision date: 2023-11-28
Acceptance date: 2023-12-04
Publication date: 2023-12-22
Corresponding author
Robert Rusinek   

Department of Physical Properties of Plant Materials, Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290, Lublin, Poland
Int. Agrophys. 2024, 38(1): 31-42
  • The roasting process of coffee affects on profile of VOCs
  • The dark method of coffee roasting reduced the content of polyphenolic compounds
  • The roasting process of coffee affects on the content of bioactive compounds
In the present study, three degrees of roasting (light, medium, and dark), which significantly differentiate the properties of coffee beans, were analyzed. Additionally, the effect of the roasting level on the profile of volatile and biologically active compounds, including chlorogenic acids, tocopherols, and caffeine, was determined. Light-roast coffee beans, referred to as the Cinnamon roast, were obtained at 198°C. In turn, American roast beans were obtained at 212°C before the second crack, and dark beans classified as the Italian roast were obtained in a roasting process carried out at 228-230°C. The content of bioactive compounds in green coffee beans was determined as well. The ‘Typica’ cultivar of Arabica coffee originating from a plantation located at an altitude of 1680 m a.s.l. in Huehuetenango Department, Guatemala, was used in the study. The analyses showed that the different parameters of coffee bean roasting (Cinnamon, American, and Italian roast) resulted in differences in the levels of phenolic compounds, caffeine, and tocopherols. The American roast style was shown to be the most balanced type of roasting in terms of the content of bioactive compounds as well as the chemical groups and profile of volatile compounds. This roasting type also exhibited the highest intensity of emission of volatile compounds, which is expected by the consumer. The study also demonstrated that the coffee bean roasting process generated different levels of phenolic compounds, caffeine, and tocopherols.
The authors thank Lubelska Coffee Roaster Rovigo Caffee (Bursaki Street 18, 20-150 Lublin,, for cooperation in carrying out the research.
The authors declare no conflict of interest. Declaration of competing interest. The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
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