Some physical properties of orange (var. Tompson)
M. Sharifi 1,   S. Rafiee 1,   A. Keyhani 1,   A. Jafari 1,   H. Mobli 1,   A. Rajabipour 1,   A. Akram 1
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Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Bio-Systems Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
Int. Agrophys. 2007, 21(4): 391–397
Orange is among the popular fruits and of a high economical value. Sizing and grading of orange is needed for the fruit to be presented to local and foreign markets. A study of orange physical properties is therefore indispensable. Some physical properties of grade one (large), two (medium) and three (small) oranges were investigated. These properties included: dimensions, mass, volume, surface area, porosity and coefficient of static friction. The major, intermediate and minor diameters of the grade two orange were 84.1, 77.4 and 75.5 mm, respectively. Volume and mass of the grade two orange were 217.8 cm3 and 215.4 g, respectively. As for grade two orange piles, the bulk density and fruit density were respectively calculated as 0.44 and 1.03 g cm-3. Porosity of grade one, two and three oranges was 44.64, 49.39 and 51.2%, with their sphericity being 0.948, 0.931 and 0.923, respectively. The static angle of friction of grade two orange on galvanized, glass and plywood surfaces were found to be 20.2, 23.4 and 23.5°, respectively. The three classes of oranges were signifi- cantly different from each other regarding their physical properties. Orange mass was determined through a polynomial function of third degree involving the average diameter of the orange. The function was evaluated with a determination coefficient of 0.991.