Physical properties of shortbread biscuits enriched with dried and powdered fruit and their by-products: a review
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Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 31, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Final revision date: 2023-04-26
Acceptance date: 2023-04-28
Publication date: 2023-07-12
Corresponding author
Dariusz Dziki   

Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
Int. Agrophys. 2023, 37(3): 245-264
  • Drying and grinding of fruits and their by-products.
  • Physical properties of shortbread biscuits enriched with fruits.
  • Utilization of fruit by-products for enriching shortbread biscuits.
  • Storage and packaging of shortbread biscuits.
Fruit fortification is a promising strategy for improving the nutritional and functional properties of shortbread biscuits, as fruit contains various bioactive compounds that provide potential health benefits. This study aimed to investigate the contemporary patterns in incorporating dried and powdered fruit and their by-products into shortbread biscuits, with a focus on alterations in their physical properties such as geometrical characteristics, weight, colour and texture. Moreover, the methods used for obtaining fruit powders were discussed. The research was based on the analysis of papers published within the last six years, retrieved from Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar databases. It has been found that drying and size reduction are crucial processes that determine the quality of fruit powders. Most importantly, the selection of the type, particle size, and quantity of the additive, as well as its processing conditions, are critical factors in achieving the desired physical characteristics of the final product. The addition of various fruits and their by-products affects the weight and geometric characteristics of the resulting biscuits. The colour of the fortified biscuits undergoes significant changes, with the brightness level typically being reduced and redness increasing. In particular, depending on the type of additive used, it can cause an increase or a decrease in shortbread hardness.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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