Determining some physical properties of bergamot (Citrus medica)
S. Rafiee 1,   M. Keramat 1,   A. Jafari 1,   M. Sharifi 1,   R. Mirasheh 1,   H. Mobli 1
 
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Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Bio-Systems Engineering, College of Agricultural and Natural Resource, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
 
Int. Agrophys. 2007, 21(3): 293–297
 
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ABSTRACT
Physical properties are often required for designing post harvest handling/processing equipment for agricultural products. Bergamot is a species of citrus fruit. Physical properties of bergamot are necessary for equipment used in activities such as transportation, storage, grading, packing, and in food production processes like drying, jam production and so on. In this study some physical properties of bergamot were determined. Properties which were measured included fruit dimensions, mass, volume, projected area, fruit density, shell ratio, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area. Bulk density, porosity and also packing coefficient were measured for three groups of small, medium and large category of bergamots. Experiments were carried out at moisture content of 84.9% w.b. for bergamot shell and 87.34% w.b. for its meat. Result showed that average mass and volume were 291.9 g and 456.83 cm3, respectively. Dimensions increased from 78.7 to 160 mm in length, 64.2 to 128.5 mm in width, and 64 to 125 mm in thickness. The mean projected area perpendicular to length, width, and thickness obtained 7063.61, 7933.39 and 8137.77 mm2, respectively. The geometric mean diameter and surface area were calculated as 97.02 mm, 30412.31 mm2, respectively, while sphericity and shell ratio (w.b.) were measured at 0.89 and 0.62%, respectively.
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