Investigation of mechanical properties of cotton stalk based on multi-component analyses
More details
Hide details
College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China
Biomass Conversion and Utilization Equipment Innovative Research Group of Science and Technology Innovative Engineering of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Nanjing Institute of Agricultural Mechanization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Nanjing 210014, China
Final revision date: 2022-07-15
Acceptance date: 2022-07-28
Publication date: 2022-09-07
Corresponding author
Jianhua Xie   

College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, China
Int. Agrophys. 2022, 36(4): 257-267
  • There were significant differences in the mechanical properties of xylem, phloem and cotton stalk.
  • Cotton stalk would be broken if the deformation deflection had exceeded 5 mm during three-point bending.
  • Xylem provides 96% compressive strength, excessive radial load caused fractured.
  • Peeled phloem slides along the xylem during mechanical uprooting are investigated.
A comprehensive understanding of the uprooting failure mechanism will likely require the accurate characterization of the mechanical properties of cotton stalk. Uprooting failure includes a fractured cotton stalk and peeled phloem sliding along the xylem. The modulus of elasticity of cotton stalk and its tissues (xylem and phloem) were measured using three different modes (tensile, compression and bending), and the reasons for the fractured cotton stalk and the peeled phloem sliding along the xylem were analysed from the perspective of composite mechanics. The results showed that the cotton stalk radially conforms to the properties of the composite with transverse anisotropy. The axial modulus of elasticity was significantly larger than the radial modulus of elasticity (axial modulus of elasticity: cotton stalk is 3181.79 MPa, xylem is 1093.91 MPa, phloem is 249.89 MPa, radial modulus of elasticity: is 91.04 MPa, xylem is 83.77 MPa, phloem is 77.01 MPa). Xylem is the backbone of the stalk that provides 96% of its compressive strength. The direct cause of fractured cotton stalk originated from the load force that exceeded its intrinsic compressive strength. Peeled phloem sliding along the xylem was related for the most part to the different radial modulus of elasticity of the xylem and phloem, and the weak cohesion between these two tissues. Based on the results, some suggestions were provided for the design of a puller.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51505242, 2016-2018), the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Programme of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (ASTIP, CAAS), Project Plan of Science and Technology Supporting Xinjiang in Autonomous Region (Grant No. 2021E02005, 2021-2023), and Tianshan Innovation Team Project (Grant No. 2020D14037, 2020-2023).
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Compliance with ethical requirements: This study does not include any experiment involving human or animal subjects.
American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2017. Compression test of food materials of convex shape.
Aminian F., Suarez E.D., Aminian M., and Walz D.T., 2006. Forecasting economic data with neural networks. Computational Economics, 28(1), 71-88. DOI:10.1007/s10614-006-9041-7.
Aydın İ. and Arslan S., 2018. Mechanical properties of cotton shoots for topping. Industrial Crops and Products, 112, 396-401. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.12.036.
Cai J., Zhang J., Yeerbolati·T., and Gao Z., 2020. Design and Test of Clamping Belt Cotton Straw Harvester. Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Machinery, 51(10), 152-160. DOI:10. 6041/ j. issn. 1000-1298. 2020. 10. 017.
Chen M., Zhao W., Wang Z., and Zhang J., 2019a. Research status of the cotton-stalk uprooting technology. J. Chinese Agric. Mechanization, 40(05), 29-35. DOI:10.13733/j.jcam.issn.2095-5553.2019.05.06.
Chen M., Zhao W., Wang Z., and Liu K., 2019b. Operation process analysis and parameter optimization of dentate disc cotton-stalk uprooting mechanism. Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Machinery, 50(03), 109-120.
Chen M., Wang Z., Qu H., and Chen Y., 2015. Bending and tensile properties tests of the cotton-stalk. J. Chinese Agric. Mechanization, 36(05), 29-32.
Chen X., Liu H., Xia N., and Shang J., 2015. Preparation and properties of oriented cotton stalk board with konjac glucomannan-chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol blend adhesive. Bioresources, 10(2), 3736-3748. DOI:10.15376/biores.10.2.3736-3748.
Guo W., Wang F., Huang G., and Zhang F., 2009. Experiment on Mechanical Properties and Chemical Compositions of Wheat Stems. Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Machinery, 40(02), 110-114.
He X., Liu J., Wang X., and Xu Y., 2020.Design and Experiment of Row-controlled Shoveling and Drawing Placement Machine for Cotton-stalks Based on Agronomy of Close Planting. rans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Machinery, 51(10), 142-151. DOI:10. 6041/ j. issn. 1000-1298. 2020. 10. 016.
Hou X., Sun F., Zhang L., and Luo J., 2014. Chemical-free extraction of cotton stalk bark fibers by steam flash explosion. Bioresources, 9(4), 6950-6967. DOI:10.15376/biores.9.4.6950-6967.
Hu Z. and Nie X., 2014. Alkaline peroxide extrusion pulping of cotton bast and cotton stalk. Bioresources, 9(2), 2856-2865. DOI:10.15376/biores.9.2.2856-2865.
Jha S.K., Singh A., and Kumar A., 2008. Physical characteristics of compressed cotton stalks. Biosystems Eng., 99(2), 205-210. DOI:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2007.09.020.
Kovács Á., and Kerényi G., 2019. Physical characteristics and mechanical behavior of maize stalks for machine development. Int. Agrophys., 33(4), 427-436. DOI:10.31545/intagr/113335.
Li T., Hao F., Han Z., and Fang X., 2018.Theoretical analysis and experiment of picking cotton with horizontal spindle. rans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Machinery, 49(S1), 233-238. DOI:10. 6041/j.issn.1000-1298.2018.S0.031.
Li Y., Du X., Song Z., and Li F., 2011. Test of shear mechanical properties of cotton stalks. rans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Machinery, 27(02), 124-128.
Liang R., Chen X., Zhang B., and Peng X., 2020. Tests and analyses on mechanical characteristics of dwarf-dense-early major cotton variety stalks. Int. Agrophys., 34(3), 333-342. DOI:10.31545/intagr/122575.
Liao Y., Liao Q., Tian B., and Shu C., 2007. Experimental research on the mechanical physical parameters of bottom stalk of the Arundo donax harvesting period. Trans. CSAE, (04), 124-129.
Liu Q., Ou Y., Wang W., and Qing S., 2007. The mechanical properties and constitutive equations of sugarcane stalk: 2007 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota, ASABE.
Ramadan Y. Y. R., 2010. Development and evaluation of a cotton stalks puller. J. Soil Sci. and Agric. Eng., Mansoura Univ., 1(10), 1061-1073.
Shen C., Li X., Tian K., and Zhang B., 2015. Experimental analysis on mechanical model of ramie stalk. Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Eng. (Transactions of the CSAE), 31(20), 26-33. DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2015.20.004.
Shi N., Guo K., Fan Y., and Liu B., 2017. Peeling and shearing mechanical performance test of cotton stalks in extrusion state. Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Eng. (Transactions of the CSAE), 33(18), 51-58. DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2017.18.007.
Tan C., Li H., Wei D., and Lorenzo R., 2020. Mechanical performance of parallel bamboo strand lumber columns under axial compression: experimental and numerical investigation. Construction and Building Materials, 231, 117168. DOI:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117168.
Tang Z., Han Z., Gan B., and Bao C., 2010. Design and experiment on cotton stalk pulling head with regardless of row. Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Machinery, 41(10), 80-85.
Wang G., Zhang X., Gao Z., and Wang Y., 2017. Dynamic testing and analysis of Poisson’s ratio constants of timber. Mechanics and Architectural Design, 18(9), 1-10. DOI:org/10.1142/9789813149021_0002.
Wu J. and Chen X., 2015. Present situation, problems and countermeasures of cotton production mechanization development in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Eng., 31(18), 5-10.
Zhang G., Li Y., Li Z., and Zhang Y., 2014. Measuring system of cotton stalk real-time pull force in the field based on labview: 2014 ASABE and CSBE/SCGAB Annual Int. Meeting, Montreal, July 13-16, Quebec, Canada.
Zhang J., Gao Z., Cai J., and Tiemuer Y., 2021. Design and experiments of cotton stalk pulling machine with horizontal-counter rollers. Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Eng., 37(07), 43-52. DOI:10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2021.07.006.
Zhao C., Han Z., Cao Z., and Shi S., 2010.Stems Biomechanical Properties Experiment of Creeping Tangled Forage in Harvesting Period. Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Machinery, 41(6), 65-69, 92. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-1298.2010.06.013.
Zhao W., Wang Z., Chen M., and Chen Y., 2019. Testing and parameter optimization of dentate disc multi-row cotton stalk uprooting device. Int. Agric. Eng. J., 28(4), 20-30.
Zhou Y., Li X., Shen C., and Tian K., 2016. Experimental analysis on mechanical model of industrial hemp stalk. Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Eng., 32(9), 22-29.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top