Analysis of the extrusion-cooking process and selected physical properties of snack pellets with the addition of fresh kale
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Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 31, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Department of Food Engineering and Machines, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 28, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Faculty of Production and Power Engineering, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Kraków, Poland
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 4a, 21-093 Lublin, Poland
Final revision date: 2023-06-14
Acceptance date: 2023-06-16
Publication date: 2023-09-14
Corresponding author
Beata Biernacka   

Katedra Techniki Cieplnej i Inżynierii Procesowej, Wydział Inżynierii Produkcji, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Lublinie, Poland
Int. Agrophys. 2023, 37(3): 353–364
  • Selected physical properties of obtained snack pellets were studied. The study focused on the effect of the conditions and sequence of the extrusion-cooking process on the quality of pellets (semi-finished products). The Zamak Mercator EXP-45-32 prototype single-screw extruder was used in the study.
The aim of the study was to evaluate selected properties of potato snack pellets fortified with fresh kale addition. Varying levels of fresh kale (10, 20 and 30%) were added in order to obtain a new type of fortified snack pellet as a semi-fini-shed product for further expansion and their effects on processing stability as well as on selected physical properties were defined. The results showed that the applied variables (moisture content, screw speed and the addition of fresh kale) significantly affected the extrusion-cooking process and also certain selected physical properties of the snack pellets. Furthermore, increasing the addition of fresh kale up to 20 and 30% in the fortified snack pellets changed some of these properties (lower energy consumption, higher efficiency of the extrusion-cooking process, higher expansion index, lower bulk density of the pellets, lower durability). The application of up to 30% fresh kale in the newly developed extruded snack pellet formulations is recommended.
This work was funded by The National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR), grant number LIDER/29/0158/L-10/18/NCBR/2019 entitled “Development of a Comprehensive Techno-logy of Obtaining High-Quality Extruded Snacks Based on Minimally Processed Vegetable and Animal Raw Materials” (2019).
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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